# List of terms that are numerical

abbreviation / acronymsTermDefinition
oD / 0-day zero day  zero Dimension a software vulnerability that has been exploited by malicious hackers on or before the day the software creators become aware of the problem  zero Dimension
0KB.INFree Knowledge Base of InternetFree Knowledge Base of Internet
1080i1080 interlacedA HDTV video mode. 1080i implies 16:9 aspect ratio, horizontal resolution of 1920 pixels, and a frame resolution of 1920 × 1080 or about 2.07 million pixels.
1080p1080 progressive1080p implies progressive scan or non-interlaced which increases vertical line resolution ~1.6x times, 16:9 aspect ratio, horizontal resolution of 1920 pixels, and a frame resolution of 1920 × 1080 or about 2.07 million pixels.
10Base510 Mbps, baseband, 500 meterone of several physical media specified by 802.3 for use in an Ethernet local area network LAN); consists of Thickwire coaxial cable with a maximum segment length of 500 meters
10BaseT10 Mbps, baseband, unshielded twisted-pairone of several physical media specified by IEEE 802.3 for use in an Ethernet local area network (LAN); is ordinary telephone twisted pair wire
100BaseT100 Mbps, baseband, unshielded twisted-pairone of several physical media specified by IEEE 802.3 for use in an Ethernet local area network (LAN); referred to as Fast Ethernet because of its higher transmission speed
10GFC10 Gigabit Fibre ChannelA point-to-point serial bi-directional interface operating up to 10.2Gbps. 10GFC is an extension of the physical layer of Fibre Channel.
100VG100 Voice Grade100 Voice Grade
1FBSingle line, Flat Business rate;Single line, Flat Business rate
1GFirst generationFirst generation mobile network. Refers to the initial category of mobile wireless networks that use analog technology only. Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) is an example of a 1G mobile network standard.
1RU1 Rack Unit1 Rack Unit
2.5GSecond and a half generation2.5G is a sometimes used term that refers to GPRS class wireless data connectivity. It is not a formal standard.
23B +D An abbreviation for the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Primary Rate Interface (PRI), composed of 23 bearer (B) channels and one data (D) channel.
24×7 or 24/7Twenty-four hours a day, seven days a weekA term commonly used to describe the concept of Internet time and how it has affected services.
24p24 frames per second ProgressiveRefers to the frame rate of movie film. Some video cameras are able to capture images at 24 fps as well as the common 30 fps, or more precisely 29.97 fps. HDTV sets also support 24p
2B1QTwo Binary, One QuaternaryA line code used for BRI and Centrex BRI where each two bits of the binary data stream are combined into a single four-level pulse amplitude modulation signal.
2Gsecond generationsecond generation mobile network. Refers generically to a category of mobile wireless networks and services that implement digital technology. GSM is an example of a 2G mobile network standard.
2G+second generation plusRefers generically to a category of mobile wireless networks that support higher data rates than 2G mobile networks. GPRS is an example of a 2G+ mobile network standard.
2PCtwo-phase commitA method for coordinating a single transaction across two or more DBMS or other resource managers. 2PC guarantees the logical integrity of data by ensuring that transaction updates are either finalized in all participating databases or fully backed out of all of them (that is, the update occurs “everywhere or nowhere”).
2PKDPTwo-Party Key Distribution ProtocolA security protocol that combines bidirectional authentication with key distribution using a minimal number of messages.
3Dthree-dimensional3D computer graphics are graphic arts that were created with the aid of digital computers and specialized 3D software. In general, the term may also refer to the process of creating such graphics, or the field of study of 3D computer graphic techniques and its related technology.
3DESTriple DESEnhancement to DES encryption where the data is encrypted through three parses through the DES algorithm. It uses a 168bit key.
3ds3D Studio3ds Max is a 3D modeling, animation and rendering program from the Media and Entertainment division of Autodesk, Inc., San Rafael, CA (www.discreet.com)
3Gthird generationThe term used to refer to the next generation of wireless communications technology, the “first generation” having been analog cellular, and the “second generation” being today’s digital cellular networks.
3GIO3rd Generation Input OutputIntel hardware spec
3GPP3rd Generation Partnership ProjectA collaboration agreement, established in 1998 among several telecommunications standards bodies, to produce a series of technical specifications and standards for third-generation (3G) wireless communications.  http://www.3gpp.org/
3GLthird-generation languageA high-level programming language – such as FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC or C – that compiles to machine language.
3iInvestors In IndustryInvestors In Industry (venture capitalists)
3M(formerly) Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Companya US multinational conglomerate corporation  http://www.3m.com/
3PPredictive, Proactive, and Preventive PhilosophyA maintenance practice that focuses on determining and performing corrective measures during normal operations over reactive measures that may impact users.
3WWorld Wide WebA hypermedia-based system for browsing Internet sites. It is named the Web because it is made of many sites linked together; users can travel from one site to another by clicking on hyperlinks.
4B5B4 Byte 5 Bytea form of data communications line code. 4B5B maps groups of four bits onto groups of five (5) bits, with a minimum density of 1 bits in the output. When NRZI-encoded, the 1 bits provide necessary clock transitions for the receiver.
4C EntityFour Company Entityindustry organization leading the development, adoption and promotion of interoperable technology solutions for the authorized sharing of premium content. The consortium consists of IBM, Intel, Matsushita and Toshiba and has a goal of creating a common platform for DRM technologies.
4G4th Generationhe next complete evolution in wireless communications that will a comprehensive solution allowing voice, data, and streamed multimedia to be provided on an “Anytime, Anywhere” basis at higher data rates than previous generations.
4GLfourth-generation languageA high-level language suitable for end-user or programmer data access and capable of reasonably complex data manipulation. A common example is Microsoft’s Visual Basic. 4GLs includes two categories of software development tools: application generators for production applications, and information generators for decision support applications.
4GT4 Gigabyte memory Tuning4 Gigabyte memory Tuning
5ESSclass five (5) electronic switching systemThe 5ESS Switch is the digital central office circuit switching system sold by Lucent Technologies.
5GL5th Generation LanguageArtificial intelligence language based around solving problems using constraints given to the program, rather than using an algorithm written by a programmer
6DOFSix Degrees of FreedomA virtual reality term used to describe movement in three-dimensional space.
80/20Eighty-twenty ruleThe program-design version of the law of diminishing returns. The 80/20 rule says that roughly 80% of the problem can be solved with 20% of the effort that it would take to solve the whole problem.
8-n-18 bits, No parity, 1 stop bitCommon parameters for modem transmission.
8B10B8 Byte 10 Bytea line code that maps 8-bit symbols to 10-bit symbols to achieve DC-balance (see DC coefficient) and bounded disparity, and yet provide enough state changes to allow reasonable clock recovery.
90-90Ninety-Ninety RuleThe first 90% of the code accounts for the first 90% of the development time. The remaining 10% of the code accounts for the other 90% of the development time.
9ifsOracle9i Internet File SystemA file sharing system from Oracle that is based on the Oracle DBMS. It is designed to consolidate all the file servers in the enterprise and allows files to be accessed from a Web browser or Network Neighborhood.
9PPlan 9 Filesystem Protocola network protocol developed for the Plan 9 from Bell Labs distributed operating system as the means of connecting the components of a Plan 9 system.
 10/100a network adapter capable of operating at 10 or 100 megabits per second
 10/100/1000a network adapter capable of operating at 10, 100, and 1000 megabits per second
 1394A high speed serial bus specification from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
 16-bit programa program that runs on Intel microprocessors using only the features of the 8088 or 80286, with 16-bit internal registers. Most DOS applications and many earlier Windows applications are 16-bit programs.
 2-205 ruleA rule for the configuration of 100Base-T, or Fast Ethernet, networks. According to the rule, the maximum network distance, or network diameter, of two non-stackable network hubs connected by copper cabling cannot exceed 205 meters
 301 redirectA notice which appears on your browser when you have clicked on a link to a page which has been permanently moved or deleted.
 32-bit programa program that uses the 32-bit internal registers and large memory capacity of the Intel 386, 486, Pentium, or other compatible micro processor
 3-4-5 Rule or 5-4-3 RuleA rule which was invoked in the days of the repeater, and is still appropriate in hubs or switched networks. The original repeaters were designed to extend the range of a network wire beyond the maximum length of the wire’s design distance. This was usually used to set up a network, cross al hall or between buildings, set up another network, etc.
 3Com3 Com Corporation (The 3 Coms are Computer, Communications and Compatibility)
 3D Printing3D printers deposit resin, plastic or another material, layer by layer, to build up a physical model. Inkjet 3D printers image successive layers of plastic powder, hardening each layer on contact, to build up the piece.
 403FORBIDDEN HTTP error message indicating that the HTTP server is not permitted to read a file
 404Originally a technical term for 404 Not Found page. The requested resource no longer exists or has been moved, or the address may be misspelled. more…
 4× ×, 8× ×, 16× × . . . 64×describing a CD or DVD drive, able to transfer data at 4, 8, 16 (etc.) times the speed of normal audio or video.
 5.1a format of SURROUND SOUND with five speakers that transmit the full audio spectrum and one that transmits only bass.
 501 errorAn error message displayed by your browser when the server the website is hosted on is unable to provide the webpage you are looking for.
 56kThe fastest modem speed supported by a dial up modem.
 6.1a format of SURROUND SOUND with six full-range speakers in the left front, center front, right front, left, right, and rear center positions, plus a SUBWOOFER for additional bass.
 6BONEThe Internet’s experimental IPv6 network.
 7.1a format of SURROUND SOUND with seven full-range speakers in the left front, center front, right front, left, right, left rear, and right rear positions, plus a SUBWOOFER for additional bass.
 80×86A family of Intel microprocessors once used in IBM-compatible PCs and workstations. It includes the 80286, 80386 and 80486. The first Pentium processors are members of the same family, but the numerical designations have been dropped.
 802.xA set of IEEE standards for the definition of LAN protocols.
 80 PLUSperformance specification requires multi-output power supplies in computers and servers to be 80% or greater energy efficient at 20%, 50% and 100% of rated load with a true power factor of 0.9 or greater.  http://www.80plus.org/

A – List of terms starting with the letter “A”

A Ampere  Anchor Current measurement unit  HTML tag, a link to another location
A/N/Kalphabetic, numeric, katakanaPertaining to alphabetic, numeric, or katakana characters.
a11yaccessibilityThere are eleven letters between the “a” and the “y”.
A2Aapplication-to-applicationAn approach to enterprise application integration that provides visibility into internal systems, so that these systems can share information or business processes.
AAanti-aliasingthe technique of minimizing the distortion artifacts known as aliasing when representing a high-resolution signal at a lower resolution
AAautomated attendantA device, typically attached to a private branch exchange or voice mail system, that answers incoming calls.
AAAauthentication, authorization, and accountingAlso pronounced “triple a.” Refers to a framework for intelligently controlling access to computer resources, enforcing policies, auditing usage, and providing the information necessary to bill for services.  Authentication is the process of identifying an individual, usually based on a username and password.  Authorization is the process of granting or denying a user access to network resources once the user has been authenticated through the username and password.  Accounting is the process of keeping track of a user’s activity while accessing the network resources
AABAll-to-all broadcastthe process where every node broadcasts its information to all other nodes.
AAC Advanced Audio Coding  ATM access concentrator an audio compression format newer and more efficient than MP3, used internally by iTunes and Nintendo Wii  A device used to concentrate a variety of services (such as frame relay, Internet Protocol and video) over a single ATM network access connection.
AALATM adaptation layerThe ATM layer where non-ATM data is converted to ATM format. The AAL serves as the “glue” that connects traditional packet and frame structures with short, fixed-length ATM cells.
AARPAppleTalk Address Resolution ProtocolProvides for the dynamic assignment of node identifiers to nodes within an AppleTalk network.
AASAuto Area SegmentationScanner technology which detects and optimizes text and graphics on the same page by Epson.
AATAverage Access TimeThe average amount of time it takes for a storage peripheral to transfer data to the CPU.
AAUIApple Attachment Unit InterfaceA 14-position, 0.050-inch-spaced ribbon contact connector.
ABAPAdvanced Business Application ProgrammingPowerful programming language created specifically for developing SAP applications. The core development tool in SAP’s R/3 system.
ABC activity-based costing  Atanasoff-Berry Computer An approach to understanding where and why costs are incurred within an enterprise.  First digital calculating machine that used vacuum tubes
ABEND abnormal end  Absent By Enforced Net Deprivation A type of system error in which a task or program fails to execute properly (i.e., “abnormally ends”). The term is also used as the name for a type of error message that indicates such a failure has occurred.  Sent in e-mail subject lines warning friends and others of forced loss of Internet access
ABIapplication binary interfaceA set of specifications that enables an application written for one target OS and hardware platform to run on a different OS and platform, where the two hardware platforms share the same processor type.
ABLEAgent Building and Learning EnvironmentA Java framework and toolkit for constructing and deploying intelligent agents.
ABMactivity-based managementThe use of ABC principles in the ongoing management of costs and resources.
ABMEasynchronous balanced mode extendedIn communications, an operational mode in which modulus 128 sequence numbers are used.
ABRAutomatic Baud Rate detectionThe process in which a receiving device examines the first character of an incoming message to determines its speed, code level, and stop bits.
ABRavailable bit rateAn ATM service category. ABR service is conceptually similar to that of a frame relay network – a minimal cell rate is guaranteed, and bursts can be supported if the network resources allow it.
ACAAustralian Communications AuthorityThe Australian government body that regulates the nation’s communications industries.
ACAPApplication Configuration Access Protocola standard for accessing program configuration information from a remote server, allowing a user to use and change their configuration from any workstation by reading or writing the values on a central server. Defined in RFC 2244.
ACCAdaptive Cruise Control Authorization Contract for ContainersAdaptive Cruise Control Specification (JSR-115) that defines new java.security.Permission classes to satisfy the J2EE authorization model
ACCUAssociation of C and C++ UsersA worldwide association of people who are interested in C, C++, and related programming languages.
ACD Automatic Call Delivery  automatic call distributor or distribution feature that allows cellular & wireless phones to receive incoming calls when roaming.  specialized phone system that handles many incoming calls. ACDs are used for a variety of order-taking functions, such as calls to help desks or dispatching of service technicians.
ACDIAsynchronous Communications Device InterfaceA software device that permits asynchronous transmission, a way of transmitting data in which one character is sent at a time, and there may be uneven amounts of time between characters.
ACE access control entry  Adobe Certified Expert  Advanced CMOS-ECL  Agile Communication Environment a set of identities and permissions that are directly associated with a particular resource. Each access control entry is directly associated with only one resource. More than one ACE can be associated with each resource.  a professional who has demonstrated proficiency with one or more Adobe software products.  A high-end processor technology introduced by Hitachi in the 1990s.  Nortel SIP-based platform acquired by Avaya
ACEEaccess control environment elementIn RACF, a control block containing details of the current user, including user ID, current connect group, user attributes, and group authorities.
ACFAdvanced Communications FunctionA family of IBM communications programs that handle tasks such as resource sharing and distribution of functions. They include ACF/Virtual Telecommunications Access Method (ACF/VTAM) and ACF/Network Control Program (ACF/NCP).
ACF2Access Control Facility 2A host-based security subsystem from CA (formerly Computer Associates); also known as CA-ACF2.
ACGadaptive code generationA technology that enables a program that uses processor features of a given system model to continue to work correctly when the program is moved to another system model that does not have all the processor features of the original model.
ACHautomated clearinghouseA type of funds transfer network that processes debit and credit transactions between accounts from participating financial institutions.
ACIaccess control informationData that identifies the access rights of a group or principal.
ACIDatomicity, consistency, isolation, durabilityFour well-established tests for verifying the integrity of business transactions in a data-processing environment.
ACKacknowledgementWhen a modem receives a data packet, it sends a signal back to the sending modem. If all the data is present and correct, it sends an ACK signal, which acts as a request for the next data packet.
ACL Access control list  application connectivity link  Asianet Communications Limited  Asynchronous Connectionless Link A list of authorised users, processes or systems.  A service that transmits out-of-band information between DirectTalk and the Siemens Hicom 300 switch.  an Indian media conglomerate jointly owned by STAR TV and Jupiter Entertainment.  type of data packet (data only).
ACMAssociation for Computing Machinery Address Complete Messagea worldwide association of computer professionals headquartered in the United States. www.acm.org Address Complete Message
ACMSApplication Control and Management SystemA transaction-processing monitor from Compaq (now part of Hewlett-Packard); originally a product of Digital Equipment, which Compaq acquired in 1998.
ACParray control processorA type of processor used in storage systems.
ACPIAdvanced Configuration and Power InterfaceA standard developed by Intel, Microsoft and Toshiba to improve PC power management and plug-and-play capabilities.
ACR Allowed Cell Rate  attenuation-to-crosstalk ratio An ABR service parameter, ACR is the current rate in cells/sec at which a source is allowed to send.  A measure of signal quality in network cabling.
ACRIadditional coding-related required informationA specification that is required by an encoding scheme to complete its definition, which extends beyond the character set and code page elements.
ACROSSAutomated Cargo Release and Operations Service SystemAutomated Cargo Release and Operations Service System
ACSAffiliated Computer Services, IncXerox Corp.’s $6.4 billion acquisition of Affiliated Computer Services Inc.
ACSEAssociation Control Service ElementThe method used in International Organization for Standardization’s OSI for establishing a call between two applications.
ACSLSAutomated Cartridge System Library SoftwareA Unix-based tape-library-sharing system from Storage Technology.
ACTaccess control templatea reusable named authorization pattern that you can apply to multiple resources. An access control template consists of a list of users and groups and indicates, for each user or group, whether permissions are granted or denied.
ACUabstract code unitA measurement used by the z/OS XL C/C++ compiler for judging the size of a function. The number of ACUs that comprise a function is proportional to its size and complexity.
AD Active Directory  Administrative Domain The directory service portion of the Windows 2000 operating system. AD manages the identities and relationships of the distributed resources that make up a network environment.  Defined in RFC 1136. On the Internet, a group of networks, hosts, and routers operated by the same organization.
ADAPTArchitecture, Design, Analysis and Planning ToolArchitecture, Design, Analysis and Planning Tool
ADBApple Desktop BusPort on the Macintosh for a keyboard, a mouse, and other peripherals.
ADC Advanced Direct Connect  Analog to Digital Converter  automated data collection a peer-to-peer file-sharing protocol, based on the topology of the Direct Connect (DC) protocol.  Often referred to A/D, the analog to digital converter is an electronic device that transforms the analog signal to digital signal, helping interconnecting the two kinds of technology/gear.  The automated conversion of disparate types of information into computer records. ADC devices and technologies include bar code systems, optical character recognition and speech recognition.
ADCCPAdvanced Data Communications Control ProceduresA bit-oriented, ANSI-standard communications link-layer protocol.
ADDM Application Discovery and Dependency Mapping  Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor BMC’s application  analyzes the data in Oracle’s Automatic Workload Repository (AWR) to discover the actual cause behind performance problems
ADE Application Data Export  application development environment Technology by Oracle Databases  An product that offers a range of tools or features (for example, for programming, interface development and testing) to provide a complete “environment” for developing applications.
ADF Activity Decision Flow  Application Development Facility  automatic document feeder The format in which models are exported from WebSphere Business Integration Workbench into WebSphere Business Modeler.  An IBM program for developing IMS applications  a device for feeding documents into a SCANNER automatically, sheet by sheet
adminADMINISTRATORthe account name used by the system administrator under Windows NT and its successors
ADI Analog Devices, Inc.  Application Desktop Integrator leader in high performance signal processing solutions http://www.analog.com/  Spreadsheet-based extension of Oracle Applications. It provides full-cycle accounting within the comfort and familiarity of a spreadsheet for General Ledger and Oracle Assets
ADKAdditional Decryption KeyKey to be able to decrypt data even if the private key owner is unwilling to provide the private key
ADLAdvanced Distributed LearningA set of standards designed to facilitate the sharing of learning objects across different learning management systems.
ADM Agile development management  Application Development Manager Agile development management  Oracle Siebel’s product that reduce the deployment efort and application downtime and to increase the application deployment quality
ADMDAdministration Management Domain or Administrative Management DomainA public e-mail message service that uses the X.400 protocol.
ADMFAsynchronous Data Mover FacilityA IBM mainframe feature designed to enhance system performance in data moves between central and expanded storage.
ADNAdvanced Digital Network application delivery networkingADN refers to a 56Kbps leased-line. ADN is an approach and a suite of technologies that comprises application security, application acceleration and network availability.
ADOActiveX Data ObjectsA high-level data access object model introduced by Microsoft in 1996.
ADPAccidental Damage ProtectionA hardware support agreement covering physical damage to aproduct caused by or resulting from a fortuitous incident. Accidents covered include liquid spills, drop impact, electrical surges, and accidental breakage.
ADPCMadaptive differential pulse code modulationA speech-coding method that calculates the difference between two consecutive speech samples in standard pulse code modulation (PCM) coded telecommunications voice signals.
ADS Active Directory Service  Asynchrous Data Switching Windows 2000 network objects database that stores each specific network item in a central database and that may be replicated  A PBX system that supports asynchronous data.
ADSI Active Directory Services Interface  Analog Display Services Interface A Microsoft Active Directory feature that enables Windows 2000 applications to interact with other directory services without the need to know the details of the underlying protocols.  Protocol that simplifies use of advanced features by displaying text messages, generated by a remote computer or central office switch, on a user’s telephone display or television set.
ADSLAsynchrous Data Switching LineA digital local loop using copper facilities and providing greater bandwidth in one direction than the other.
ADSMADSTAR Distributed Storage ManagerAn IBM product which provides services for backing up, archiving and restoring data files by allowing a central workstation to act as a server for networked workstations and personal computers.
ADSRAttack, Decay, Sustain, Releasethe four parameters in a basic synthesizer. While Sustain is a level control, the Attack, Decay and Release are time and ratio-dependant parameters. When a key is pressed, the Attack determines the ratio with which it reaches a top level and the begins to fall at the ratio of the Decay parameter down to the level set by the Sustain value.
ADSTARAutomated Document Storage and RetrievalIBM’s name for its storage products business in the 1990s.
ADT Abstract Data Type  admission, discharge and transfer  application deployment template a class of data structures described by means of a set of operations rather than by physical representation, such as a class in object-oriented programming.  A category of hospital software. An ADT system records admissions to, discharges from and transfers within a hospital, and maintains the hospital census.  A combination of the logical deployment template and the network topology template that describes the deployment of application modules on servers and clusters.
ADTGAdvanced Data Table GramMicrosoft Proprietary binary format for storing database data
ADUCActive Directory Users and ComputersA snap-in in the Microsoft Management Console (MMC)
AECArchitecture, Engineering, ConstructionA computer graphics market requiring specialized applications that facilitate efficient planning, design, drafting, and analysis.
AESAdvanced Encryption StandardA competition is currently underway to define a public 256-bit symmetric encryption algorithm that will replace DES (Data Encryption Standard).
AF Assured Forwarding  audio frequency Using AF, a provider may offer different levels of service for IP packets received from a customer domain. Each AF class is allocated a specified amount of buffer space and bandwidth  a frequency within the range of human hearing, 20 to 20,000 hertz
AFCantiferromagnetically coupledA type of storage media that uses an advanced magnetic coating expected to dramatically increase HDD capacity. IBM shipped the first AVC-based storage products in 2001.
AFIAuthority and Format IdentifierThis identifier is part of the network level address header.
AFISAutomated Fingerprint Identification Systema biometric ID methodology that uses digital imaging technology to obtain, store, and analyze fingerprint data. The AFIS was originally used by the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in criminal cases.
AFKAway From KeyboardAn example of Internet shorthand used in chat rooms, E-Mail, and instant messages.
AFMAtomic Force Microscopea powerful tool to manipulate matters at the nanoscale. It is today used for imaging a wide range of surfaces such as glass, composites, ceramics, polymers and biological samples. AFM finds increasing application in nanotechnology and biophysics.
AFP Advanced Function Printing  Apple Filing Protocol An IBM all-points-addressable enterprisewide print architecture.  A client/server protocol used by Apple file service to share files and network services. AFP uses TCP/IP and other protocols to support communication between computers on a network.
AFLAcademic Free Licensepermissive free software license written in 2002 by Lawrence E. Rosen
AGCAutomatic Gain ControlMost often used in audio circuits; an electronic circuit which automatically increases the volume when someone is speaking quietly and drops the volume when someone is speaking loudly, to keep the transmitted signal constant.
AGPAccelerated Graphics PortAn Intel technology for desktop systems. It increases system performance by offloading graphic requirements from the system bus to a bus dedicated to video processing.
AHCIAdvanced Host Controller Interfacean interface specification that allows the storage driver to enable advanced SATA features such as Native Command Queuing and hot plug.
AHPanalytical hierarchy processA process that uses hierarchical decomposition to deal with complex information in multicriterion decision making, such as information technology vendor and product evaluation.
AI Action Indicator  Adobe Illustrator  artificial intelligence AI is an ISDN term  AI is a draw program for Macintosh and Windows. It is especially useful for technical drawing.  AI is the use of computers to simulate human thinking. Artificial intelligence is concerned with building computer programs that can solve problems creatively
AIAApplication Integration ArchitectureApplication Integration Architecture
AIDattention identifierA character in a data stream that is sent to the host system when a display station user presses an AID key. Typical AID keys are function keys or the Clear, Enter, Page Up, Page Down, Help, Print, and Home keys.
AIMAOL Instant Messengeran application that allows computer users to correspond with friends while online
AINAdvanced Intelligent NetworkIntroduced by AT&T Network Systems in 1991, AIN enables service providers to define, test and introduce new multimedia messaging, personal-communication and cell-routing services.
AIOall in oneThese are printers that are a combination of various devices in one machine, including printer, scanner, fax machine and copier.
AIODAutomatic Identified Outward DialingAn option on a PBX that specifies the extension number instead of the PBX number on outward calls. Used for internal billing.
AIPAdvanced Inspection and PreventionCisco ASA add-in modules
AIRAdditive Increase RateAn ABR service parameter, AIR controls the rate at which the cell transmission rate increases. It is signaled as AIRF, where AIRF = AIR*Nrm/PCR.
AITAdvanced Intelligent TapeAn eight-millimeter helical-scan tape drive designed and manufactured by Sony. Sony has differentiated its AIT drive from other 8-millimeter tape drives with a unique media feature on the tape cartridge called memory in cassette (MIC).
AIXAdvanced Interactive ExecutiveAIX is an operating system developed by IBM and is in fact Unix-based.
AjaxAsynchronous JavaScript and XMLA way of including content in a web page in which javascript code in the web page fetches some data from a server and displays it without re-fetching the entire surrounding page at the same time (hence the ‘Asynchronous’)
AJPApache JServ ProtocolBinary, packet-oriented protocol bridging the web server with the servlet container. The web server attempts to maintain persistent TCP connections to the servlet container, and to reuse a connection for multiple request/response cycles
AL PAArbitrated Loop Physical AddressIn Fibre Channel transmissions, an 8-bit value used to identify a participating device in an arbitrated loop.
ALETaccess list entry tokenA token that serves as an index into an access list.
ALGApplication Layer GatewayUsed in conjuction with NAT to allow IP address translation
ALGOLALGOrithmic Languagea pair of programming languages that had a strong impact on programming language design.
ALIApplication layer interfaceThe ALI forms the interface for the application layer in the OSI reference model. It provides a clearly defined separation of communication and application
ALM Application Life Cycle Management  Asset Lifecycle Management  Asynchronous Line Multiplexer the facility for common process workflow and consolidation of planning, management, measurement and reporting of work item activities in the development process.  Asset Lifecycle Management  A device that connects multiple terminals or other serial interface devices to Sun network file servers or workstations. Also known as “multiple terminal interface.”
ALPApplication Layer Program / ProtocolA program or network protocol at the Application Layer
ALSAAdvanced Linux Sound ArchitectureLinux kernel component intended to replace the original Open Sound System for providing drivers for sound cards.
ALTalternative Used in an HTML tag for the benefit of people using nongraphical browsers, or for people using a browser with graphics turned off.  A top-level category of “alternative” USENET newsgroups.  The Alt key on the keyboard of PC compatibles, typically used in conjunction with other keys.
ALU Alcatel-Lucent  arithmetic logic unit A leader in fixed, mobile and converged broadband networking, IP and optics technologies, applications and services www.alcatel-lucent.com  A CPU’s core element, which carries out arithmetic computations.
AMAmplitude ModulationA particular technology, most commonly used in radio broadcasting, where blending a modulated signal into a carrier wave by varying the amplitude of the carrier creates the final transmit frequency.
AMAautomatic message accountingA function that automatically documents billing data related to subscriber-dialed long-distance calls.
Amanda(formerly) Advanced Maryland Automatic Network Disk Archiveran open source computer archiving tool that is able to back up data residing on multiple computers on a network. http://www.amanda.org/
AMD Active Matrix Display  Advanced Microchip Devices  architected model-driven LCD technology, used for computer screens, in which there is a transistor for each pixel, which prevents losing image quality between scans.  A semiconductor manufacturer and is a major competitor of Intel. They manufacture the Athlon, Duron, and K6 CPU chips.  www.amd.com  SOA tools that automate models and rules
AMEAdvanced Metal EvaporatedA media formulation manufactured by Sony for use in its consumer and computer product lines.
amiAnalyze, Metricate, ImproveA method for software project management and process improvement.
AMI advanced metering infrastructure  Alternate Mark Inversion  Application Messaging Interface utility-focused applications  Line coding format used on T1 facilities that transmits ones by alternate positive and negative pulses.  The programming interface provided by WebSphere MQ that defines a high level interface to message queuing services.
AML Anti-Money-Laundering  Astronomical Markup Language Verify the identity of any person seeking to open an account, determine the source and destination of their funding, and check the account opener’s name against any government-provided lists of known or suspected terrorists or terrorist organizations.  A standardized format for exchange of metadata related to astronomy. This language will enhance the ability of astronomers to retrieve scientific data, and make it possible for humans and intelligent agents to use the same information.
AMMAAdvanced Memory Management ArchitectureStrategies for providing sufficient memory to all the processes in a computer system, performed by the memory management unit.
AMP ampere (A)  amplifier  Asymmetric Multi-Processing a measurement of electrical current. One coulomb flowing per second.  a term used for devices that increase output of sound or electrical voltage or current.  an option built into many current operating systems to share CPU functions between two mirrored servers.
AMPSAdvanced Mobile Phone SystemThe original standard specification for analog systems. Used primarily in North America, Latin America, Australia and parts of Russia and Asia.
AMR Audio Modem Riser  Automatic meter reading an Intel specification that defines a new architecture for the design of motherboards.  the technology of automatically collecting consumption, diagnostic, and status data from water meter or energy metering devices (water, gas, electric) and transferring that data to a central database for billing, troubleshooting, and analyzing.
AMRFAction Message Retention FacilityA z/OS facility that, when active, retains all action messages except those specified by the installation.
AMSaccess method services Analog/Mixed-Signal Application Management ServicesA multifunction utility named IDCAMS that is used to manage catalogs, devices, and both VSAM and non-VSAM data sets. Analog/Mixed-Signal Application Management Services
AMT Active Management Technology  address mapping table Allows the IT team to better discover, heal, and protect their networked computing assets  A table that provides a current mapping of node addresses to hardware addresses.
AMTAAmerican Mobile Telecommunications AssociationAMTA represents and promotes the interest of specialized wireless communications, meeting the educational, informational and regulatory needs of licensees and related businesses. See them at AMTAUSA.ORG.
ANDFArchitecture-Neutral Distribution Formatan emerging OSF standard for software distribution. Programs are compiled into ANDF before distribution, and executables are produced from it for the local target system.
ANIAutomatic Number IdentificationThe number associated with the telephone station from which switched calls are originated or terminated.
Anon FTPAnonymous FTPA method for downloading and uploading files using FTP protocol without having a username or a password.  In place of a username, word “anonymous” is used, and in place of a password, email address is usually used.
ANOVAanalysis of varianceA form of statistical analysis.
ANRautomatic network routingIn High-Performance Routing (HPR), a highly efficient routing protocol that minimizes cycles and storage requirements for routing network layer packets through intermediate nodes on the route.
ANSIAmerican National Standards Institutethe main industrial standardization organization in the United States. There are official ANSI standards in almost all industries, and many of them have to do with computers. www.ansi.org
ANXAutomotive Network ExchangeEstablished by the Automotive Industry Action Group to offer extranet-based applications to suppliers of Chrysler, Ford and General Motors.
AOAangle of arrivalBased on triangulation, a method of processing cellular phone signals, AOA allows the physical position of switched-on wireless devices to be located.
AOCEApple Open Collaboration EnvironmentMacintosh System 7 extensions that make it possible to share e-mail, directory, and other services in a multiplatform environment.
AoEAta Over EthernetNetwork protocol designed for simple, high-performance access of SATA storage devices over Ethernet networks. It gives the possibility to build SANs with low-cost, standard technologies
AOF Advanced Open File  application object file Backup exec option backs up open files during a backup job  An ASCII text file that contains the names of the global description file and the component description files, which together describe the management characteristics of an application.
AOL America Online  Application Object Library AOL is founded in 1985, America Online, based in Dulles, Virginia, has become the world’s leader in interactive services, Web brands, Internet technologies, and e-commerce services. www.aol.com  AOL stand for Application Object Library
AORAddress of RecordAn SIP term, an AOR provides a single public address for all telecommunications. The AOR can be mapped across multiple devices and media types.
APaccess pointa hardware device or a computer’s software that acts as a communication hub for users of a wireless device to connect to a wired LAN. APs are important for providing heightened wireless security and for extending the physical range of service a wireless user has access to.
APAall-points addressableAble to address, reference, and position text, overlays, and images at any defined position or picture element (pel) on the printable area of the paper.
APaaSapplication platform as a serviceapplication platform as a service
APACSAssociation for Payment Clearing ServicesThe organization that manages U.K. payment systems.
APaRTautomated packet recognition/translationTechnology that allows a server to be attached to CDDI or FDDI without requiring the reconfiguration of applications or network protocols.
APC asynchronous procedure call  American Power Conversion  Antenna Phase Center A kernel-defined control object which represents a procedure that is called asynchronously within a particular thread context.  American Power Conversion  A theoretical point in the guidance receiver for which a position is derived.
APDUapplication-layer protocol data unitIn OSI, a protocol data unit in the application layer.
APFAutomated Purposing FrameworkCollection of scripts and utilities that enable you to consistently and reliably prepare computer hardware (BIOS, mass storage) and install the Windows operating system and layered products on one or more build computers
APIApplication Programming Interface Advanced Photonix, IncAn interface to a computer operating system or software program that gives other programs access to functions similar to those offered to users through a graphical user interface. a leading supplier of opto-electronic solutions and Terahertz sensors and instrumentation to a global OEM …advancedphotonix.com/
APM Active policy management  Advanced Power Management  application performance management analyzes unstructured content in documents and e-mails, and applies the appropriate rules for access, life cycle management and oversight.  A feature from Intel and Microsoft for battery-powered computers, which powers-down or the display when the computer has been inactive for a certain length of time in order to conserve power.  application performance management
APMLAttention Profiling Markup Languageused to consolidate and aggregate individual users’ ranked interests
APNICAsia Pacific Network Information CenterNonprofit Internet registry organization for the Asia Pacific region. The other Internet registries are currently IANA, RIPE NCC, and InterNIC. http://www.apnic.net/
APOAdvanced Planner and OptimizerA supply-chain-planning suite from SAP.
APOPAuthenticated Post Office Protocolsimilar to the POP protocol except that APOP enables your password to be encrypted while being transmitted over the network.
APOTAlternate (Additional) Point of Terminationform identifies specific collocation terminations at the ICDF frame where the CLEC “UNE termination cables” are terminated. These terminations are used for the purpose of ordering UNEs, Ancillary Services, or Finished Services.
appapplicationa computer program that performs useful work not related to the computer itself. Examples include WORD PROCESSORs, PRESENTATION GRAPHICS programs
APPCAdvanced Program-to-Program CommunicationThe programming interface to LU 6.2, IBM’s protocol for peer-to-peer program communication under SNA.
APPNAdvanced Peer to Peer NetworkingIBM data communications support that routes data between Advanced Peer-to-Peer Communication (APPC) systems to enable users anywhere on the network to have direct communication with each other.
APRApache Portable RuntimeIts mission is to provide a free library of C data structures and routines, forming a system portability layer to as many operating systems as possible, including Unices, MS Win32, BeOS and OS/2
APS advanced planning and scheduling  Automatic Protection Switching A subcomponent of supply chain planning (SCP) that focuses on manufacturing planning and scheduling.  A mean for automatically detecting and signalling a transmission link failure
APWGAnti-Phishing Working Groupan international membership organization that seeks to eliminate fraud based on attacks from phishing and e-mail spoofing. These attacks hurt legitimate businesses as the attackers fraudulently use the identity of an established organization in their attack.
AQCBAutomated Quote Contract BillingSystem used to price non-tariffed products and services.
AR Access Rate  Augmented reality The data rate of the user access channel. The rate (maximum) at which access devices can offer data to the frame relay network  a technology that superimposes graphics, audio and other virtual enhancements over a live view of the real world. It is this “real world” element that differentiates AR from virtual reality.
ARAApple Remote AccessCommunication software designed to offer remote access to an AppleTalk-compatible network via an ARA server.
ARADarchitected rapid application developmentSOA tools that automate models and rules
ARAGAntiReflection AntiGlareThere are add-on screens for monitors that eliminate screen glare and protect the user’s eyes.
ARCAmes Research Center ArchiveNASA facility is charged with the mission of assisting with better life quality on earth, human exploration, space travel and the search for life on other planets. www.nasa.gov/centers/ames Archive
ARCNETAttached Resource Computer NETworka LAN protocol, similar in purpose to Ethernet or Token Ring.
ARDAutomatic Ring DownPrivate line connecting a station instrument in one location with a station instrument in another location. When station one is off hook, station two rings. Also called “hot line”.
ARIAAccessible Rich Internet ApplicationsARIA, also WAI-ARIA, defines a way to make Web content and Web applications more accessible to people
ARINAmerican Registry for Internet Numbersthe Internet registry service for North and South America, as well the Caribbean and sub-Saharan Africa. http://arin.net/
ARLABLE Rule LanguageA rule-based programming language that is used to express business logic outside of program logic. ARL provides tight integration with Java objects, and the tooling provided with ABLE is based on the Eclipse platform.
ARMAdvanced RISC Machines Asynchronous Response Mode Active Registry Monitora RISC processor find most of their use on hand-held machines and PDAs. Currently owned by Intel, and currently produced by both the above and Digital/Compaq. Asynchronous Response Mode Active Registry Monitor
ARPAddress Resolution ProtocolA method for finding a host’s Ethernet address from its Internet address. It works like this: The sender broadcasts an ARP packet containing the Internet address of another host and waits for it to send back its Ethernet address.
ARPANETAdvance Research Projects Agency NetworkA packet-switched network developed in the early 1970s. The “father” of today’s Internet. ARPANET was decommissioned in June 1990. http://www.arpa.mil/
ARQautomatic repeat requestA modem status signal indicated by a light on the modem; in cases of transmissions errors, the ARQ is a request to the sender to retransmit.
ARS Action Request System  automatic route selection call tracking and resolution software provided by BMC Software  Device (or software) which chooses the lowest cost route for long-distance calls over specific lines or services, including WATS, leased, specialized non-Bell common carriers or direct distance dialing (DDD).
ARTAdditional Reference TransmissionART is carrier term
ARTSAssociation for Retail Technology StandardsData Model standard
ARuaudio response unitOutput device which provides a spoken response to digital inquiries from a telephone or other device. The response is usually assembled by a computer from a prerecorded vocabulary of words. 
AS/400Application System/400A midrange computer system introduced by IBM in 1988 as a replacement for its System/36 and System/38 product families.
AS2Applicability Statement 2a specification for EDI between businesses using the Internet’s Web page protocol, HTTP. The specification is an extension of the earlier version, Applicability Statement 1 (AS1).
ASAaverage speed of answerA standard quantitative method for measuring the speed at which call center calls are answered.
ASBRAutonomous System Boundary RouterASBRs run both OSPF and another routing protocol, such as RIP. ASBRs must reside in a nonstub OSPF area.
ASCAbstract Syntax CheckerIn OSI, a utility program for OSI Communications Subsystem that processes user-specified ASN.1 statements
ASCIIAmerican Standard Code for Information Interchangepronounced as-kee, standard way of encoding characters into digital codes. An ASCII file is taken to mean a text file containing unformatted text that is, characters but not information about fonts, sizes and so on.
ASCLAsianet Satellite Communications Limiteddataline, broadband internet, leading ISP in kerala. asianet.co.in
ASE Adaptive Server Enterprise  application service element relational database management system product of Sybase Corporation, is a direct descendant of Sybase SQL Server.  A set of functions in the application layer of OSI that provides a capability for the interworking of application entities for a specific purpose on a single application association.
ASF Advanced Streaming Format  Automatic Sheet Feeder set of standards from Microsoft that is utilized in WMP7 technology.  The technology dictates the different ways printers feed paper. Dot matrix printers usually run on a continuous Web of paper while laser printers or ink jet type printers are generally single sheet. They are also often referred to as page printers.
ASICApplication-Specific Integrated CircuitA chip with custom-built hardware circuits for a particular set of functions. ASICs are commonly used in networking devices to maximize performance and provide integration of multiple functions into a single chip.
ASIFaccess security information fieldIn SNA, a field within Function Management Header Type 5 (FMH-5), which is used to convey security information.
ASISaccess security information subfieldIn SNA, a subfield within Function Management Header Type 5 (FMH-5), which is used to convey security information.
ASKAnomalous State of KnowledgeASK is a programming term
ASLRAddress Space Layout Randomizationa process which entails arranging the positions of major data areas randomly in virtual address space. Microsoft’s Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 have ASLR enabled by default
ASLSAnalog Single Line Stationa telephony term. An extension port on a PABX/KSU that will allow a standard household type phone to interface with the system.
ASM Auto-sequencing memory  Automatic Storage Management Anti machine data memory including data counters to be programmed by flowware to generate the data streams at run time.  Oracle 10g database feature that provides the database administrator with a simple storage management interface that is consistent across all server and storage platforms
ASMLoriginally ASM Lithography (ASM for Advanced Semiconductor Materials)largest supplier in the world of photolithography systems for the semiconductor industry, founded in 1984 as a joint venture between the Dutch companies Advanced Semiconductor Materials International (ASMI) and Philips. www.asml.com
ASActivesyncAS is Microsoft software
AS / ASNautonomous system (number)A number assigned to a local network, registered into the carrier’s routing community and placed under the umbrella of an administrative domain called an autonomous system
ASNAbstract Syntax NotationThe International Organization for Standardization’s OSI language for describing abstract syntax.
ASN.1Abstract Syntax Notation OneIn OSI, a notation for defining data structures and data types. The notation is defined in international standards ISO 8824/ITU X.208 and ISO 8825/ITU X.209.
ASOAddress Supporting OrganizationICANN Supporting Organization responsible for reviewing and developing recommendations on IP address policy aso.icann.org
ASP Abstract Service Primitive  Active Server Pages  Application Server Process  Application Service Provider  Aspect Oriented Programming  Average Selling Price Implementation-independent description of interaction between service-user and service-provider at particular service boundary, as defined by OSI.  a Microsoft technology, allows programmers to develop custom code that works with Microsoft’s IIS.  Application Server Process  Sometimes refered to as an “app-on-tap,” this is a third-party company that distributes software-based services from a central location to customers in other locations.  Aspect Oriented Programming  This term is used in the microchip manufacturing world. Companies like AMD and Intel strive for high ASPs. The ASP is an indication not only of direct profits, but how well a company is keeping up with the technology curve.
ASPIAdvanced SCSI Programming InterfaceAn interface from Adaptec that allows application programs to access SCSI hardware. See SCSI.
ASPXActive Server Pages eXtendedDynamic web pages engine for the Microsoft .NET framework
ASRAccess Service Request Automatic Speech Recognition Automated System RecoveryAccess Service Request Automatic Speech Recognition Automated System Recovery
ASQAutomated Software Quality  The use of software tools, such as automated testing tools, to improve software quality.  
ASR Automatic Send and Receive  automatic speech recognition  Automated system recovery Any one of several devices designed to transmit and receive data unattended, in contrast with RO, “receive only” devices.  Another name for speech recognition technology.  One of several backup mechanisms on Windows XP. ASR is intended to be taken infrequently, whenever there are changes in the system.
ASVApproved Scanning VendorCompany approved by the PCI SSC to conduct external vulnerability scanning services.
ATAdvanced Technologythe class of IBM PCs originally introduced in 1984 using the 80286 microprocessor and a 16-bit bus
AT&TAmerican Telephone And TelegraphThe USA’s major common carrier for long distance telephone lines.
ATA Actual Time of Arrival  Advanced Technology Attachment  Analog Telephone Adaptor Actual Time of Arrival  An integrated bus usually used between host processors and disk drives. Used interchangeably with IDE.  connects the conventional telephone to the Internet, converts the analog voice signals into IP packets, delivers dial tone and manages the call setup.
ATAGAuthoring Tool Accessibility GuidelinesW3C recommendation that explains how to develop authoring tools that make it easier to produce accessible Web pages that conform to the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG)
ATAPIAT Attachment Packet InterfaceA hardware and software specification that documents the interface between a host computer and CD-ROM drives using the ATA bus.
ATBall trunks busyA single tone interrupted at a 120 impulses per minute (ipm) rate to indicate all lines or trunks in a routing group are busy. 
ATCAAdvanced Telecom Computing ArchitectureATCA provides the telecommunications industry with an opportunity to adopt a standard architecture for a broad spectrum of products, including wireless access, wireless core networks, and IP Multimedia Subsystem IMS network elements.
ATG advanced technology group  Art Technology Group A group charged with researching, tracking and evaluating emerging technologies for an enterprise, and with prototyping and piloting advanced-technology projects prior to deployment.  A developer of online customer relationship management applications, headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
ATIAllied Telesyn InternationalNetworking hardware manufacturer
ATL Active Template Library  automated tape library A group of routines provided by Microsoft that can be used to help more easily create ASP, ActiveX, and COM objects in C++.  A system used for high-capacity, tape-based data storage. ATLs typically have dozens of drives and can accommodate hundreds tape cartridges.
ATLASAuthorization Token Layer Acquisition ServiceDescribes the service needed to acquire authorization tokens to access a target system using the CSIv2 protocol. This design defines a single interface with which a client acquires an authorization token
ATM Adobe Type Manager  asynchronous transfer mode  automated teller machine a software program or system extension manufactured by Adobe Systems that is used to enhance the display of screen fonts on computer monitors,  a transfer mode for switching and transmission that efficiently and flexibly organizes information into cells. It is asynchronous in the sense that the recurrence of cells depends on the required or instantaneous bit rate.  A public banking machine that customers can access by inserting or swiping a magnetic card and entering a password.
ATOassemble to orderA strategy allowing a product or service to be made to meet the custom requirements of a specific order, where a large number of such customized products can be assembled in various forms from common components.
Atom Any Transport over MPLS  Atom a technology developed by Cisco for transporting Layer 2 packets over an IP/MPLS backbone.  Atom is the name of an XML-based Web content and metadata syndication format, and an application-level protocol for publishing and editing Web resources belonging to periodically updated Web sites.
ATP AppleTalk Transaction Protocol  available to promise In AppleTalk networks, a protocol that provides client/server request and response functions for hosts accessing the ZIP for zone information.  The uncommitted portion of a company’s inventory or planned production. This figure is frequently calculated from the master production schedule and is maintained as a tool for order promising.
ATPCOAirline Tariff Publishing CompanyThe central database where airlines file and publish their fares
ATRACAdaptive TRansform Acoustic CodingAudio compression algorithm, introduced by Sony for its Mini Disk, which relies on the masking of low-amplitude frequency components by temporally adjacent high-amplitude components
ATRNAuthenticated TurnAuthenticated Turn
ATSAbstract Test Suite Applications Technology Satellite Air to SurfaceAbstract Test Suite Applications Technology Satellite Air to Surface
ATSCAdvanced Television Systems Committeean international, non-profit organization developing voluntary standards for digital television.
ATTISAT&T Information SystemsA division of AT&T Technologies that supplies and manufactures CPE.
ATU-C / ATU-RADSL Transmission Unit, Central or RemoteDevice at end of ADSL line that stands between line and first item of equipment in subscriber premises or telephone switch. May be integrated within access node.
ATULADSL Termination Unit RemoteATUR is the ADSL modem or PC card that physically terminates an ADSL connection at the end user’s location.
ATVEFAdvanced TV Enhancement ForumA standard for creating enhanced, interactive television content and for delivering that content to a range of television, set-top, and PC-based receivers (http://www.atvef.com).
ATXAdvanced Technology eXtendedA particular set of characteristics defining a generic type of motherboard, power supply and chassis combination. The definition came from Intel, along with a consortium of hardware and software makers to define the ability of the design.
AUDITAUtomated Data Input TerminalAUtomated Data Input Terminal
AUIAttachment Unit Interfacea device that contains a 15-bit pin, or socket, and is used to connect a NIC with a standard Ethernet cable.
AUIMLAbstract User Interface Markup LanguageAn XML implementation that provides a platform and technology-neutral method of representing windows, wizards, property sheets, and other user interface elements.
AUPacceptable use policya policy that a user must agree to follow in order to be provided with access to a network or to the Internet.
AUTOEXECAutomatic ExecutionWhen a program is executed on it’s own.
AUTONEGAutonegotiationa feature that determines link options and optimal settings for a given Ethernet connection. When AUTONEG is enabled, a network interface card or a switch port can determine the capabilities of the device at the far end of the link and select the best mode of operation.
AUVAutonomous Underwater Vehiclea robotic device driven through water by a propulsion system. AUVs are self-sufficient vehicles carrying their own energy source.  The control of the vehicle is done using an onboard computer thus eliminating the need of operators located elsewhere.
AUXauxiliary deviceA peripheral device that may perform a useful function but is not necessary for the operation of the computer. Examples are printers, scanners, and modems.
AV Anti Virus  Audio Video or Visual Anti Virus software  pertaining to the recording and reproduction of sounds and pictures
AVDalternate voice dataA single transmission facility which can be used for either voice or data. 
AVEDAntiVirus Emergency Discussion listA mailing list for professional antivirus researchers allowing them to alert other researchers to emerging or ongoing ‘crisis’ or ’emergency’ virus events.
AVIAudio/Video InterleavedAVI is the most common format for audio/video data on the personal computer.
AVKApplication Verification KitTool intended to help developers test their applications for correct use of J2EE APIs and portability across J2EE compatible application servers, and to help developers avoid inadvertently writing non-portable code
AVSApplication Visualisation Systema portable modular UNIX-based graphics package supported by a consortium of vendors including Convex, DEC, IBM, HP, SET Technologies, Stardent and WaveTracer.
AVSTApplied Voice & Speech Technologies Inc.software company in the telecommunication industry http://www.avst.com/
AWDAccess Workflow DesignerOrganize and track information
AVVIDArchitecture for Voice, Video and Integrated DataAn architectural approach for integrating enterprise voice, video and data traffic over IP-based networks, introduced by Cisco Systems in 1999.
AWEAdvanced WavEffectsA series of sound cards from Creative Labs that includes the Sound Blaster AWE 32, the Sound Blaster AWE64, and the AWE64 Gold.
AWS Advanced Wireless Services  Amazon Web Services  Autonomous Web ServicesAmazon Web Services (AWS) delivers a set of services that together form a reliable, scalable, and inexpensive computing platform “in the cloud”. aws.amazon.com/ a collection of remote computing services a next generation Web Services based on business process model harmonization among independent systems
AWTAbstract Window ToolkitIn Java programming, a collection of GUI components that were implemented using native-platform versions of the components. These components provide that subset of functionality which is common to all operating system environments.
 a+Pronounced A plus, a certification developed by the Computing Technology Industry Association (CompTIA) to validate vendor-neutral skills for entry-level computer technicians. Holders of the A+ certification have been trained in installing, repairing, troubleshooting, maintaining, customizing and operating PCs.
 AC97The popular audio system from Realtek.
 acoustic couplerA special type of modem that converts acoustic energy (sound waves) into electrical energy, allowing a standard telephone handset to be attached to a computer or data terminal for data transmission. 
 ActiveXA Microsoft technology that facilitates various Internet applications, and therefore extends and enhances the functionality of Microsoft’s Internet Explorer browser. Like Java, ActiveX enables the development of interactive content.
 Activity Streamsa publish/subscribe notification mechanism that provides frequent updates to subscribers about the activities or events that relate to another individual.
 Adaa programming language developed in the late 1970s for the U.S. Department of Defense.
 Ad Hoc NetworkA decentralized wireless network in which each node is capable of forwarding data to other nodes without relying on an established access point. An ad hoc network can be created spontaneously as needed and requires no permanent infrastructure.
 Adwordsan advertising service by Google for businesses wanting to display ads on Google and its advertising network. The AdWords program enables businesses to set a budget for advertising and only pay when people click the ads. adwords.google.com
 AeroThe new user interface for Windows Vista, except for the Start and Home Basic editions.
 air interfacea cellular industry term. It refers to the system that ensures compatibility between subscriber terminal equipment (i.e. cell phones and PDAs) and base stations. It involves the specification of channel frequencies and widths,
 air PBXan IP-PBX system in which traditional PBX desk phones are replaced by cell phones. The implementation can be via WLAN or cellular. Devices using software telephone (“softphone”) technology can use all functions provided by the call manager.
 always-onAn internet connection which remains on 24/7 such as ADSL or cable, rather than only connecting on demand like a dialup.
 AndroidLinux based operating system that is backed by Google and the other members of the Open Handset Alliance.
 AnonymousWith no traceability; unable to ascertain the actual identity of the claimed identity; very likely to imply naming that is intentionally opaque.  Anonymous FTP: Service supported by many Internet hosts. Typically, allows user to download documents, files, programs, and other publicly accessible data using FTP.
 antennaA metallic device used to transmit and receive electromagnetic waves. An antenna can be a passive or active device.
 appletThis a Java program that can be embedded in a Web page. The difference between a standard Java application and a Java applet is that an applet can’t access system resources on the local computer.
 archiveData that is important information, stored for a long period of time in some recording media such as magnetic tapes, storage arrays or other non-active hard disks.
 atomAtom is an alternate XML format for easily sharing content, much like RSS Really Simple Syndication (format). Blogs on http://www.blogger.com/ for example, publish Atom feeds.
 Autonomous Vehiclescan drive itself from a starting point to a predetermined destination in “autopilot” mode using various in-vehicle technologies and sensors, including GPS navigation technology
 avatar A graphical icon that represents a real person in a cyberspace system. When you enter the system, you can choose from a number of fanciful avatars. Sophisticated 3D avatars even change shape depending on what they are doing  A common name for the superuser account on UNIX systems. The other common name is root.
 AVGAVG is a family of anti-virus and Internet security software for the Microsoft Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, and FreeBSD computing platforms, developed by AVG Technologies. http://www.avg.com
 AZERTYThe standard French language keyboard layout. Term comes from the first six letters below the row of numbers.

B – List of terms starting with the letter “B”

bbitThe number of bits used to represent a character. For personal computers a byte is usually 8 bits.
B channelBearer ChannelA wire used in ISDN service that can carry up to 64 Kbps of data when operating at full capacity. It is a clear channel “pipe” that carries voice, data, or video over ISDN. The BRI service offered to home users has two B channels.
B2Bbusiness-to-businessB2B is also commonly used as an adjective to describe any activity, be it B2B marketing, sales, or e-commerce, that occurs between businesses and other businesses
B2Cbusiness-to-consumerB2C describes activities of commercial organizations serving the end consumer with products and/or services. It is usually applied exclusively to electronic commerce.
B2Ebusiness-to-employeeThe use and leverage of e-business approaches and Internet technologies to deliver a comprehensive set of services to an enterprise’s employees and their managers. The full term is sometimes presented as “business-to-enterprise.”
B8ZSBinary Eight Zero Suppression.8ZS is a technique in T1 that modifies the AMI encoding to ensure minimum pulse density without altering customer data. When eight “zeros” in a row are detected, a pattern with intentional bipolar violations is substituted.
B-HAVWBehavioral Heuristic Analyzer in Virtual EnvironmentsBitdefender technology
BAABlanket Authorization AgreementSigned by interconnectors guaranteeing that they have authority of the end user customer to request CPNI and place service orders on the customer’s behalf.
BACBroadCast AgentBusiness Objects broadcast agent
BACNETBuilding Automation and Control Network protocola communications protocol for building automation and control networks.
BAFBellcore AMA FormatBellcore (Now Telcordia Technologies) AMA Format
BAIBank Administration InstituteFile / report format used in financial services industry
BAMbusiness activity monitoringA Gartner term that defines the concept of providing real-time access to critical business performance indicators to improve the speed and effectiveness of business operations. At its broadest level, BAM is the convergence of operational business intelligence and real-time application integration.
BANBody Area Networksan emerging field of technology that has the potential to revolutionize healthcare and pathbreaking applications in sports, communications and security. 
BAPIBusiness Application Programming InterfaceA set of documented, server-side interfaces to one or more R/3 processes, from SAP. BAPI packages multiple internal functions to enable programmatic access to such higher-order tasks as checking customer numbers, providing product descriptions, selecting products, creating quotations or creating orders.
bar filebroker archive fileThe unit of deployment to the broker; also known as a bar file. It contains any number of compiled message flows (.cmf), message sets (.dictionary), and a single deployment descriptor.
Basel IIBasel Capital Accorda regulatory framework for the banking sector, developed by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. This committee meets every three months at the Bank for International Settlements in Basel, Switzerland.
BASHBourne-Again SHellan interactive UNIX shell based on the traditional Bourne shell, but with increased functionality. BASH is the shell, or command language interpreter, that will appear in the GNU operating system
BASICBeginners’ All-purpose Symbolic Instruction CodeA high-level algebraic programming language developed at Dartmouth College in the 1960s and widely taught to beginning programmers. It is simple to use but lacks speed.
BAT Baby Advanced Technology  batch  Baidu, Alibaba, Tencent A type of system board  in Windows, a file whose name ends in .BAT and that contains a list of commands China’s top three Internet companies, 百度、腾讯、阿里巴巴 in Chinese
BBCBritish Broadcasting Corporation Broadband Bearer CapabilityThe British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster, headquartered at Broadcasting House in the City of Westminster, London  http://www.bbc.co.uk/> A bearer class field that is part of the initial address message.
BBCsbuffer-to-buffer creditsallow data communication in a Fibre Channel SAN where there are long spans of fiber optic cable. Unless storage distance extension is employed, latency imposes a distance limitation of a few kilometers between the source and the destination in the network.
BBNBolt, Beranek and Newmanthe last names of the three founders of BBN Technologies and the original name of the company.
BBPBusiness-to-Business ProcurementA catalog-based procurement product from SAP.
BBSBulletin Board SystemA computerized meeting and announcement system that allows people to carry on discussions, upload and download files, and make announcements without the people being connected to the computer at the same time.
BC4JBusiness Components For JavaJava 2 platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE) framework that helps developers quickly construct high-performance J2EE applications following industry-standard design patterns
BCBbuffer control blockAn opaque cache manager structure that is used to maintain state as a file system pins and releases data (for example, its volume structure) in the cache.
BccBlind Carbon CopyWhen you send an e-mail to only one person, you type the recipient’s address in the “To:” field. When you send a message to more than one person, you have the option to enter addresses in the “Cc:” and “Bcc:” fields.
BCCBlock Check CharacterA control character added to a block in character oriented protocols (such as Bisync) used for determining if the block was received in error
BCDbinary-coded decimala format for representing decimal numbers (integers) in which each digit is represented by four bits (nybble or nibble). See byte. For example, the number 375 would be represented as: 0011 0111 0101.
BCEBell Canada Enterprises;Canada’s Largest Communications Company http://www.bce.ca
BCELByte Code Engineering LibraryLibrary intended to give users a convenient possibility to analyze, create, and manipulate (binary) Java class files
BCIBusiness Continuity InstituteThe BCI promotes the highest standards of professional competence and commercial ethics in the provision, maintenance and services for Business Continuity Management (BCM).
BCM / BCMPBusiness Continuity Management (Planning)automates the collaborative research, analysis and writing needed to create a recovery plan for critical business and IT operations that can be published and distributed to the recovery teams.
BCOCABar Code Object Content ArchitectureAn architected collection of constructs used to interchange and present bar code data.
BCP Best Current Practice  Bulk Copy Program  business continuity planning Means that a certain manner of proceeding is in general the most logical choice  A program used to copy databases or parts of databases in Sybase and Microsoft SQL Server environments.  A broad approach to planning for the recovery of an enterprise’s entire business process in event of a massive disruption caused by catastrophic event.
BCSbasic content servicesBCSs provide document library services with complementary ad hoc imaging, basic Web publishing, document collaboration and document routing as their core functionalities.
BCUGbilateral closed user groupIn data communication, two users who have bilaterally agreed to communicate with each other, but not with other users.
BCVbusiness continuance volumeEMC’s name for the data volumes created by its Symmetrix TimeFinder feature. BCVs are copies of active data volumes that are separately addressed from the source volume.
BCXBasic To C Translatoran open source and free software, translates BASIC to C/C++ for compilation on various Win32 compilers. It is a small command line tool that takes a BASIC source code file and outputs a C/C++ source code file.
BDBlu-ray DiscThis is an optical disc format that was developed to enable recording, playback, and rewriting of HD video. This technology has a storage capacity far greater than that of traditional DVDs.
BDCBackup Domain ControllerSecondary to the PDC, provides user/computer domain authentication
BDFbuilding distribution frameThe location in a building where equipment attaches a number of cables from the LDF’s
BECNBackward Explicit Congestion NotificationA bit sent by a frame relay network to notify an interface device (DTE) that congestion avoidance procedures should be initiated by the sending device
BEEPBlocks Extensible Exchange Protocola framework for creating network application protocols. It is intended to abstract-out the common features that have traditionally been duplicated in each protocol implementation
BellcoreBell Communications ResearchA jointly owned, financed and centrally staffed organization of the regional holding companies formed after the AT&T divestiture in 1984, charged with establishing network standards and interfaces. Bellcore changed its name to Telcordia Technologies in 1999.
BER Basic Encoding Rules  bit error rate Standard rules for encoding data units described in ASN.1.  A measurement of digital transmission quality – the lower the rate, the higher the quality. A minimum BER is often specified in service-level agreements between digital carriers and their customers.
BERTBit Error Rate TestA test that reflects the ratio of errored bits to the total number transmitted. Usually shown in exponential form (10^-6) to indicate that one out of a certain number of bits are in error.
BESBlackBerry Enterprise ServerBlackBerry’s mobility platform
BFRBona Fide RequestSubmitted CLECs with an interconnection, or pending, agreement with Qwest for non-tariffed, non-negotiated, non-mandated services, including operations standards.
BFTBinary File TransferA method of transferring files using fax modems. It’s an extension to the fax protocol.
BGAball grid arrayAs opposed to a pin grid array (PGA), a ball grid array is a type of microchip connection methodology. Ball grid array chips typically use a group of solder dots, or balls, arranged in concentric rectangles to connect to a circuit board.
BGIBinary Gateway InterfaceProvides a method of running a program from a Web server. Similar to a Common Gateway Interface (CGI). The BGI uses a binary DLL which is loaded into memory when the server starts. While more efficient han a CGI, the BGI must be compiled and is not easily portable to other environments.
BGANBroadband Global Area NetworkBGAN is a mobile communications system created to transmit broadband wireless voice and data communications almost anywhere on the earth’s surface.
BGPBorder Gateway ProtocolThe interdomain routing protocol implemented in Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) networks.
BGP-4Border Gateway Protocol-4A networking redundancy service based on BGP. It enables an enterprise to route Information Protocol (IP) traffic destined for the same IP address via different network connections. In a BGP-4 environment, when a transmission comes from an Internet service provider’s network, it will look for the primary router that connects to the enterprise’s location.
BHCAbusy hour call attemptThe capacity of a voice call processor can be measured in BHCAs. BHCAs measure the amount of calls that a voice system can attempt to handle in a continuous one-hour period (for example, 2,500 busy hour call attempts or, equivalently, 2,500 call attempts during the busy hour). BHCA capacities include all calls attempted, whether completed or not.
BHCCbusy hour call completionThe capacity of a processor can be measured in terms of BHCCs. BHCCs are a measure that includes only completed calls, which makes it a more rigorous metric than BHCA.
BHLIBroadband High Layer InformationThis is a Q.2931 information element that identifies an application (or session layer protocol of an application).
BHMCBusy Hour Minutes of CapacityFor Switched Access
BHOBrowser Help Objecta software component that can be added to Internet Explorer to add new functions.
BIbusiness intelligenceAn interactive process for exploring and analyzing structured, domain-specific information to discern business trends or patterns, thereby deriving insights and drawing conclusions. The BI process includes communicating findings and effecting change.
BIAbusiness impact analysisAn analysis of the costs that would be incurred if a system or set of business processes failed to function properly. BIA is a required early step in the BCP process.
BIBOPbig bag of pagesa technique that encodes object type in the high-order bits of their address, by using a lookup table that maps from those bits to a type.
BICbank identifier codeA code used to uniquely identify a bank, logical terminal, or branch within a SWIFT network.
BICIBroadband Inter-Carrier InterfaceA carrier-to-carrier interface line PNNI (private network-to-network interface) that is needed because carriers do not permit their switches to share routing information or detailed network maps with their competition’s equipment.
BiDiBi-Directionalthe capability of a computer system to correctly display bi-directional text.
BIDSBusiness Intelligence Development StudioIDE from Microsoft used for developing data analysis and Business Intelligence solutions utilizing the Microsoft SQL Server Analysis Services, Reporting Services and Integration Services
BinbinaryBinary data, composed of something other than human-readable text. Binary code, the digital representation of text and data
BinhexBINary HEXadecimalA method for converting non-text files (non-ASCII) into ASCII. This is needed because Internet e-mail can only handle ASCII.
BIODblock input/output daemonIn the Network File System (NFS), a daemon that performs parallel read/write requests on behalf of an NFS client.
BIOSBasic Input/Output SystemA fundamental element of PCs and other computers. It is a kind of built-in software that determines what a computer can do without accessing programs from a disk.
BIPBit Interleaved ParityMethod used at PHY layer to monitor error performance of link. Check bit or word is sent in link overhead covering previous block or frame. Bit errors in payload will be detected and may be reported as maintenance information.
BIPSBank Internet Payment SystemThe BIPS specification includes a protocol for sending payment instructions to banks safely over the Internet and a payment server architecture for processing those payment instructions
BIRTBusiness Intelligence and Reporting ToolsOpen source, Eclipse-based reporting system that integrates with your application to produce compelling reports for both web and PDF.
BISTbuilt-in self testa feature included in newer integrated circuits and other electronic equipment
BISUPBroadband ISDN User’s PartSS7 protocol that defines signaling messages to control connections and services.
Bisync or BSCBinary SYNChronousA synchronous communications protocol that transmits binary-coded data between two devices by using a set of control characters and control character sequences.
BitBinary DigITA single digit number in base-2, in other words, either a 1 or a zero. The smallest unit of computerized data. Bandwidthis usually measured in bits-per-second.
BIT7Bit SevenA TR008 DS1 line code that performs zero code suppression by placing a one in bit 7 of an all-zeros byte.
BITNETBecause It’s Time NetworkingLow-cost, low-speed academic network consisting primarily of IBM mainframes and 9600-bps leased lines. BITNET is now part of CREN.
BITS Background Intelligent Transfer Service  Banking Industry Technology Secretariat  Bump-In-The-Stack Enables developers to write client applications that transfer files asynchronously between a client and server.  The technology arm of the Bankers Roundtable, whose membership comprises the top 125 bank holding companies in the United States.  Configuration where IPsec is implemented “underneath” an existing implementation of an IP protocol stack, between the native IP and the local network drivers.
BITWBump-In-The-WireConfiguration where IPsec is implemented through the use of an outboard crypto processor.
BIWBusiness Information WarehouseA component of SAP’s R/3 system.
BLBLade ServerAn HP brandname for ProLiant BladeServers, which are designed forthe performance, management, density and total cost of ownership (TCO) savings requirements of data centers.
BLASTBasic Local Alignment Search Toolconsists of a set of algorithms. BLAST is used to compare biological sequences like protein sequences or nucleotides. With BLAST a comparison of individual sequence can be done against a database of sequences and information obtained in case there is matching of sequences.
BLISSBroadband Local Integrated Services SolutionAllows service providers to offer a bundle of packet-based services including local and long distance voice services and high-speed data
B-LLIBroadband Low Layer InformationThis is a Q.2931 information element that identifies a layer 2 and a layer 3 protocol used by the application.
BLOBbinary large objectA generic term used to describe the handling and storage of long strings of data by database management systems. A BLOB is a category of data, characterized by large size (including media formats such as audio and video), which can place extreme demands on storage systems and network bandwidth.
Blog / Blogger BLOGweB LOG Better Listings on GoogleA blog is basically a journal that is available on the web. The activity of updating a blog is “blogging” and someone who keeps a blog is a “blogger.” Blogs are typically updated daily using software that allows people with little or no technical background to update and maintain the blog. Better Listings on Google
BLSBasic Link Servicea Fibre Channel request and response protocol used by all devices.
BMRTBlue Moon Rendering ToolsRenderMan-compliant photorealistic rendering systems. It was distributed as freeware
BMTBiel Mean Timea synonym for Internet Time. BMT is followed by a @and 3 numbers ranging from 001 to 999. The Swatch organization devised an idea to divide the 24 hour day into 1000 “beats”, often called Swatchbeats, each being 26.4 seconds in length.
BNCBayone-Neill-Concelman / British Naval ConnectorA connector type for 10Base2 or Thin-Net networks. Shaped like the letter T, it connects coaxial cables. The “T” has two male connectors and one female connector.
BNFBackus-Naur Formformal meta-syntax for describing context-free syntaxes. In speech recognition, a special adaptation of grammar representation specified by Speech Recognition Control Language (SRCL)
BNIBroadband Network InterfaceBroadband Network Interface
BNOSBrocade Network OSBrocade OS that can converge fbre channel and IP onto a Linux core
BO / BOBJBusiness Objectsa French enterprise software company, specializing in BI. Since 2007 is part of SAP AG.
BOABasic Object AdapterSoftware that provides CORBA-compliant services for object implementations.
BOB Breakout Box  Business Object Broker Also known as an EIA monitor, a breakout box serves to monitor the status of signals of the pins of an RS-232C connector or cable and allows signals to be broken, patched, or cross-connected.  SAP’s message broker for R/3.
BOCBell operating companyAny of the 22 original companies (or their successors) that were created from the breakup of AT&T in 1983. They were reorganized into seven Bell regional holding companies (RHCs).
BOCU-1Binary Ordered Compression for UnicodeA Unicode compression scheme that is MIME-compatible (directly usable for e-mail) and preserves binary order, which is useful for databases and sorted lists.
BoDBandwidth on DemandBoD value-added service enables you to request additional bandwidth between any two locations during heavy demand period
BODBusiness Object DocumentA representation of a standard business process that flows within an organization or between organizations. BODs are defined by the Open Applications Group using XML.
BOLBooks OnlineA bookstore on the Internet created as a joint venture of German publisher Bertelsmann and French publisher Havas. It is designed to be pan-European with a Web site available in various local languages. http://www.bol.com
BOM Beginning of Message  bill of materials  Byte Order Mark a telephony term. A short electrical pulse provided by a digital announcer when used in certain 4 wire E & M modes.  A structured list of the raw materials, parts and assemblies that constitute a product to be manufactured, often used in manufacturing and SCM systems.  The Unicode character U+FEFF when used to indicate the byte order of a text.
BONDINGBandwidth on Demand Inter-Operability GroupAn industry working group that develops common control and synchronization standards needed to manage high-speed data as it travels through the PSTN. These standards are for DS0 inverse multiplexing and switched services.
bootbootstrapTo start a computer and load the operating system to prepare the computer to execute an application.
BOOTPBootstrap ProtocolA protocol – defined in Internet Engineering Task Force Request for Comment 951 – that enables a diskless client machine connected to an IP network to discover its own IP address and the address of a server running the protocol.
BOPSBillions of Processes Per SecondProcessing speed
bot / botnetrobot (network)generally used to refer to an automated program used to process data with minimal human intervention. Most often referred to as certain types of search engines that seek out information from pages on the Internet.  A “botnet” is a network of computers that are infected with malware and then used to send spam and shut down Web sites (DDoS).
BOT beginning of tape  build-operate-transfer In tape storage systems, the point at the start of the tape in a cartridge. Tape cartridge load times are often measured in terms of the time to BOT.  A process used in several Asia/Pacific countries that allows foreign companies to build a telecommunications network in the country, operate it for a period and then transfer ownership to the government.
BPA Business Process Analysis  business process automation the business-modeling space in which business professionals and IT analysts collaborate on enterprise business architecture, aimed at transforming and improving business performance.  The automation of complex business processes and functions beyond conventional data manipulation and record-keeping activities, usually through the use of advanced technologies.
BPCBusiness Planning and ConsolidationSAP NetWeaver capabilities
BPDMBusiness Process Definition Metamodelthe first standard metamodel to facilitate development of service-oriented architectures within and among enterprises by unifying internal business or department processes (orchestration) with interactions between businesses or departments (choreography).
BPDUBridge Protocol Data Unitparts of the STP that help describe and identify attributes of a switch port.
BPELBusiness Process Execution LanguageAn XML-based language for the formal specification of business processes and business interaction protocols.
BPEL4WSBusiness Process Execution Language for Web ServicesA set of specifications released in 2002 by IBM and Microsoft, combining previously separate efforts of the two companies. BPEL4WS is designed to enable Web services to support workflow and business process execution.
bpibits per inchThe density, measured in number of bits per inch, at which information can be stored on magnetic tape.
BPLbroadband over power linesThis is a technology that has never emerged successfully from many attempts since the early ’80s. It is a direct competitor with both DSL and cable connectivity and attempts the same capability over electrical transmission lines.
BPMbusiness process managementBPM activities seek to make business processes more effective, more efficient, and more capable of adapting to an ever-changing environment.
BPONBroadband Passive Optical NetworkBPON standards were set by the ITU-T as G.983.3 for a local loop technology running the ATM protocol over single mode fiber.
BPOSBusiness Productivity Online Standard SuiteMicrosoft Cloud-based services
BPP Bluetooth Basic Printing  Bridge Port Pair  business process platform   Represents a specially-developed Bluetooth profile that allows devices to send text, e-mails, vCards, images or other items to printers based on print jobs.  Frame header information identifying a bridge/LAN pair of a Source route segment.  a combined IT and business model that enables enterprises to accommodate rapid, but controlled, business process changes through the use of integrated process composition technologies and reusable business process components in a managed environment.
BPPMBMC ProactiveNet Performance ManagementBMC’s APM solution includes both real and synthetic transaction capabilities, including a passive end user experience agent deployed as a sofware process or within a VM as a virtual appliance.
bpsBits Per SecondBits per second is the standard way of measuring how fast data moves across a network or phone system. For example, a 56K modem can hypothetically transfer data at 56,700 bits per second.
BPVBiPolar Violationthe occurrence of two successive pulses of the same polarity in a bipolar signal. In T1 it is detected as an error.
BRABasic Rate AccessThe name used in Canada and Europe for Basic Rate Interface (see BRI).
BRANBroadband Radio Access NetworksAn ETSI project, it provides telecommunications services the middle ground between mobile systems and the wired access world
BRASBroadband Remote Access Serverthe aggregation point for the subscriber traffic.
BREBusiness rule enginesused to automate controls, especially when business process management is implemented to standardize and automate critical regulated processes.
BREWBinary Runtime Environment for Wirelessmobile channel technologies
BRFBenchmark Report FormatIn computer graphics, a standard format for reporting benchmark results. This format provides the purchaser with a consistent data-tracking system for comparing hardware platforms.
BRIBasic Rate InterfaceAn Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) channel configuration. BRI – known as Basic Rate Access (BRA) in Canada and Europe – consists of two 64 kilobit per second (Kbps) data or voice channels, which are designated as B (bearer) channels, and one 16-Kbps signaling or packet data channel, designated as the D (delta) channel. BRI is, therefore, often referred to as 2B+D.
BROUTERBridge-RouterThis was an early technology, which took advantage of the (relative) speed of a bridge, but also provided the capabilities of a router. The brouter was characterized by the term, “bridge when possible, route when necessary.”
BRRBusiness Readiness Ratinga proposed rating system for use by open source software community.
BRZBipolar Return to ZeroRZ is a bipolar signal in which each pulse returns to zero amplitude before its time period ends. This prevents the buildup of DC current on the signal line.
BS 7799British Standard 7799A comprehensive standard from the British Standards Institute (BSI). Formally titled the “Code of Practice for Information Security Management,” BS 7799 was significantly revised in 2000 and evolved into International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard 17799
BSABusiness Software AllianceA software industry coalition whose stated missions include industry education and copyright enforcement.
BSC Balance Score Card  binary synchronous communication A business performance measurement system developed by Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton, that provides a method of aligning business activities to the strategy, and monitoring performance of strategic goals over time.  A data-communication line protocol that uses a set of transmission control characters and control character sequences to send binary-coded data over a communication line.
BSDBerkeley Software Distributionthe UNIX operating system derivative developed and distributed by the Computer Systems Research Group of the University of California, Berkeley, from 1977 to 1995
BSDIBerkeley Software Design, Inc.a commercial supplier of Internet and networking software based on the BSD (Berkeley) version of UNIX.
BSEBasic Service ElementsIn Open Network Architecture, BSEs are functions of the switched network. A BSE normally consists of an access link element, a features/functions element, or a transport and usage element that connects Enhanced Service Providers to their customers.
BSMBusiness Service Managementa category of IT operations management software products that dynamically links the availability and performance events from underlying IT infrastructure and application components to the business-oriented IT services that enable business processes.
BSNLBharat Sanchar Nigam Limiteda state-owned telecommunications company headquartered in New Delhi, India. BSNL is one of the largest Indian cellular service providers and the largest land line telephone provider in India.
BSoDBlue Screen of DeathTerminal error screen displayed by Microsoft Windows, not normally recoverable except by a reboot. Also known as a Stop Screen. A blue screen will display a STOP error code, which may give some indication as to the cause.
BSPboard support packagePart of a software package that is processor or platform dependent. Typically, sample source code for the BSP is provided by the package developer.
BSS Base Station System  Broadband Switching System  business support system A wireless telecommunications term. A GSM device charged with managing radio frequency resources and radio frequency transmission for a group of BTSs.  A carrier (e.g. LEC or IXC) switch for broadband communications. Such switches are capable of switching frames (Frame Relay) or cells (SMDS and ATM) at a very high rate of speed.  A category of support software and services used by telecommunications industry firms for customer records, installations, maintenance, billing and operations.
BSSIDbasic service set identifieruniquely identifies each BSS, the SSID used in multiple, possibly overlapping.
BSTbinary search treea type of binary tree where the nodes are arranged in order: for each node, all elements in its left subtree are less-or-equal to the node (<=), and all the elements in its right subtree are greater than the node (>).
BT BitTorrent  British Telecom  bluetooth a P2P file sharing system that reduces dependency on the original host (or the SEED) by having everyone who downloads the file also offer it for anonymous upload to others  British Telecom.  wireless technology that allows devices to communicate at short range. A cell phone being used with a hands-free headset is one example. Sending a document between a Bluetooth-enabled laptop and printer is another.
BTAGBeginning TagAn ATM term. A one octet field of the CPCS_PDU used in conjunction with the etag octet to form an association between the beginning of message and end of message.
BTAMBasic Telecommunications Access Methoda low-level programming interface specified by IBM for use on the IBM System/360 for sending and receiving data through telecommunication lines
BTOBusiness technology optimizationBusiness technology optimization
BTM Benchmark Timing Methodology  business transaction monitoring In computer graphics, a method of measuring how long it takes to run the purchaser’s benchmark interchange format program.  business transaction monitoring
BTSBits Per SecondIn data communications, bits per second (abbreviated bps) is a common measure of data speed for computer modems and transmission carriers.
BTWBy The WayComputer jargon
BTXBalanced Technology eXtendedntel has collaborated with the Desktop Computing industry to create an evolutionary step in the desktop computer form factor. BTX integrates cost-effective engineering and design strategies for power dissipation, structural integrity, acoustic performance, and motherboard design into a scalable form factor.
BUSBroadcast and Unknown ServerThis server handles data sent by an LE Client to the broadcast MAC address (‘FFFFFFFFFFFF’), all multicast traffic, and initial unicast frames which are sent by a LAN Emulation Client.
BVDBasic Virtual Diska VD configured using only non-hybrid RAID levels like RAID-0, RAID5 or RAID5E. Its elements are physical disks.
BWbandwidth The measure of the range of frequencies within a band required to transmit a particular signal. The wider the bandwidth, the more information it can carry.  Used to describe the data-carrying capacity of any given circuit or pathway. The measure of the rate at which information can be passed.
BYODbring your own devicea type of VoIP subscription. Subscribers who have their own VoIP device (a SIP-capable device) when signing up for a VoIP service will usually be able to take advantage of a cheaper subscription plan
 back doorA usually hidden or secret means for an external user to break into your host, network, application, or data. See also virus
 back endthe part of a computer system not directly interacting with the user.
 backboneBackbone network is the main communication path in a WAN; the set of cables or connections that carries most of the traffic
 backhaulThe terrestrial link between an earth station and a switching or data center.
 bandwidth shapingThe process of manipulating, managing or controlling (shaping) portions of a network connection to the outside world and determining an allowed bandwidth consumption based on types of activities.
 bank A slot or group of slots, usually on a systemboard (motherboard), that are populated by memory modules of the same capacity.  A slang term for general memory in a computer; the memory bank.
 Baud RateThe speed at which a modem sends and receives data, e.g., 2400 bps, 9600 bps. One baud is roughly equivalent to one bit per second.
 benchmark / benchmarking a computer program used to test the performance of a computer or a piece of software.  Measuring performance qualities (such as efficiency or spending) of enterprise organizations or processes (such IS) against comparative benchmarks.
 best-effortDescribes a network system that does not use a sophisticated acknowledgment system to guarantee reliable delivery of information.
 best practiceA group of tasks that optimizes the efficiency or effectiveness of the business discipline or process to which it contributes. Best practices are generally adaptable and replicable across similar organizations or enterprises.
 betaSoftware that’s still in the testing stage not quite ready for wide release. During a beta test users report bugs back to the developers.
 bid An attempt to gain control over a line in order to transmit data.  Usually associated with contention style of sharing a single line among several terminals.
 Big BlueA slang name for IBM. Blue is IBM’s corporate color.
 BilevelA type of image containing only black and white pixels.
 BinaryA numbering system with only two values: 0 (zero) and 1 (one).
 Biometric Authenticationuse biometric traits to verify users’ claimed identities when accessing devices, networks, networked applications or Web applications
 Bitcoindigital currency that serves the same functions and purposes as money
 black boxA generic term used to identify functional equipment segments, as opposed to circuitry, that make up each segment of a telecommunications system. 
 blade serverA server architecture that houses multiple server modules (“blades”) in a single chassis. It is widely used in datacenters to save space and improve system management.
 blawgSlang term used to describe an online blog that is written by lawyers, or one that is focused on providing legal-oriented content.
 bogiealso spelled bogey, refers to a false blip on a radar display. The term is also used to describe radar echoes that occur for unknown reasons, especially in the military, where such a signal might indicate hostile aircraft.
 booking.comBooking.com is the world’s leading online hotel reservations agency by room nights sold, attracting over 30 million unique visitors each month via the Internet from both leisure and business markets worldwide. Priceline is the parent company.  http://www.booking.com/
 BooleanA term that originated in the in the realm of mathematics, and that is now commonly known for its application to search engine logic. A Boolean search allows for the inclusion or exclusion of documents containing certain keywords
 BottleneckA point at which the performance or capacity of an entire system or network can be significantly influenced. Formally, a bottleneck lies on a network or system’s critical path and provides the lowest throughput.
 bounceThe return of a piece of mail because of an error in its delivery.
 Bricks and clicksbusiness that existed pre-Internet that now uses e-commerce technology to sell on the Internet
 bridgeDevice that connects and passes packets between two network segments that use the same communications protocol. Bridges operate at the data link layer (Layer 2) of the OSI reference model.
 broadbandBroadband is another word for high-speed Internet. Because it transfers information quickly, broadband is ideal for downloading music and watching streaming videos.
 broadcastData packet that are sent to all nodes on a network. Broadcasts are identified by a broadcast address.
 bufferA storage area used for handling data in transit. Buffers are used in internetworking to compensate for differences in processing speed between network devices. Bursts of data can be stored in buffers until they can be handled by slower processing devices. Sometimes referred to as a packet buffer.
 bugAn error in a piece of software that stops it from working the way that it should do.
 burnCreate a CD or DVD.
 burstTemporary increased network loading due to a data surge or alarm avalanche
 bus A communication pathway between the components in your computer.  Bus topology has computers connected to a strand of network cabling that is connected to network repeaters at one end and terminated at the other.
 business technologyPervasive technology use that boosts business results.
 bypass modeOperating mode on FDDI and token ring networks where an interface has de-inserted from the ring.

C – List of terms starting with the letter “C”

C-GREXChaos Game Representation Explorera handy Bioinformatics tool for exploring the sequence visualization and pattern analysis of biological sequences including RNA, DNA and amino acid sequences.
C++ / CPPC Plus PlusObject-oriented programming language based on C. Also, filename extension.
C2AClick-to-ActionA method for implementing cooperative portlets, whereby users can click an icon on a source portlet to transfer data to one or more target portlets.
C4Scommand, control, communications, and computer systems   Integrated systems of doctrine, procedures, organizational structures, personnel, equipment, facilities, and communications designed to support a commander’s exercise of command and control, through all phases of the operational continuum.    Integrated systems of doctrine, procedures, organizational structures, personnel, equipment, facilities, and communications designed to support a commander’s exercise of command and control, across the range of military operations.
C64/128Commodore 64/128The C64 computer to this day holds the record for being the most successful model of computer ever made with even the lowest estimates being in the tens of millions. Its big brother, the C128, was not quite as popular but still sold several million units.
C&SIconsulting and system integrationConsulting & SI job or industry
CA Certificate Authority  Computer Associates (formerly) a trusted third party used to create digital certificates and private/public key pairs and to guarantee that the party signing a document is the person they claim to be.  IT software market leader http://www.ca.com
CaaSCommunications as a ServiceThe utilization of enterprise-class communications applications and technology (such as IP telephony, contact center services and unified communications) is offered as a service.
CAC Call Admission Control  Carrier Access Code  Connection Admission Control The inspection and control all inbound and outbound voice network activity by a voice firewall based on user-defined policies.  Five to seven-digit number that identifies which interexchange carrier call uses. Subscribers dial these digits with each long distance call or pre-subscribe to particular carrier and let digital switch software add CAC.  the set of actions taken by the network during the call set- up phase (or during call re-negotiation phase) in order to determine whether a connection request can be accepted or should be rejected.
CAD/ CAMComputer-Aided Design / ManufacturingAlso known by engineers and architects as the best invention of all time. Today, CAD software is used for nearly all three-dimensional designing. Designers can turn an object into an electronic representation more quickly and accurately than by diagraming it with a pencil and paper.
CAICommon Air InterfaceA standard that defines technical parameters for control and information signals passed between a radio transmitter and receiver, so that communication may take place between equipment manufactured by different companies.
CALClient Access LicenseA Microsoft software license program. The cost of clients accessing specially licensed servers. There are typically two methods of licensing access to a server or a separately-priced service. These were previously known as “Per- server or per-seat.
CALEACommunications Assistance for Law Enforcement ActThis is a U.S. legal framework enabling telephone call interception in certain circumstances. Please refer to  http://www.fcc.gov/calea/ for further details.
CAM Capital Asset Management  channel access method  computer-aided manufacturing Oracle JD Edwards EnterpriseOne EAM solution  a protocol for how data is transmitted in the bottom two layers of the OSI model.  a type of computer application that helps automate a factory.
CAMAcentralized automatic message accountingAn automatic message accounting system that serves more than one switch from a central location.
CAMELCustomized Application for Mobile networks Enhanced Logica feature of GSM that allows users to roam between networks. CAMEL is a standard that is now starting to be deployed.
CAN Campus Area Network    cancel character  Controller–area network a network which involves interconnectivity between buildings in a set geographic area, such as a campus, major hospital, large corporate enterprise, industrial park, or other such non-public access environment.    A control character used by some conventions to indicate that the data with which it is associated are in error or are to be disregarded.  a vehicle bus standard designed to allow microcontrollers and devices to communicate with each other within a vehicle without a host computer.
CAN-SPAMControlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketinga law passed by the U.S. Congress in 2003 (15 U.S.C. 7701) providing penalties for sending deceptive mass e-mails. The act required the Federal Trade Commission to investigate whether or not to establish a national Do Not E-mail registry
CAPcarrierless amplitude phase modulationA multilevel, multiphase encoding method for transmitting data over twisted pair lines. It is a superset of the legacy protocol used by analog modems.
CAPACA Productivity Acceleratora set of interactive features and functions to help ease training, navigation, use and process adoption of the product once it is live and in use in the field.
CAPEconcurrent art-to-product environmentA design approach that brings together a variety of synergistic applications, including visualization, rapid prototyping, analysis, materials selection, machining and cost estimation.
CAPI Common Application Programming interface  Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing  Computer Assisted Programming Interface API standard used to access ISDN equipment, equipment that use the integrated services digital network ISDN standard for the transfer of data over telephone lines.  Surveying using a computer-based questionnaire. CAPI allows the interviewer to customize the survey, so that respondents answer questions only about subjects they’re familiar with and receive questions in a random order to avoid biases.  another name for a program generator. These programs were first made in the early days of Z80 microcomputers to create programs in BASIC for people that were not programmers.
capscapital letterscapital letters
CAPTCHACompletely Automated Public Turing Test to tell Computers and Humans Aparta challenge-response system test designed to differentiate humans from automated programs.  http://www.captcha.net/
CARcommitted access rateA metric used in network quality-of-service agreements to classify and limit customer traffic and manage excess traffic according to the network policy.
CARECustomer Account Record ExchangeNational guidelines for the formats and language used in mechanized exchanges of Equal Access-related information between Interexchange Carriers and telephone companies.
CAROTCentralized Automatic Reporting on TrunksA mechanized system for testing of trunks to ensure that trunks are accessible to traffic, function properly during call setup and termination, and provide a proper transmission path during a call.
CARPCommon Address Redundancy ProtocolAllows multiple hosts on the same local network to share a set of IP addresses among them
CARTcommand and response tokenAn 8-byte token that is added to write-to-operator (WTO) commands; it enables the response WTO to be associated with the command that invoked it.
CAS   centralized attendant services  channel associated signaling  Column Address Strobe  computer algebra system  Common Analysis Structure  Content-Addressed Storage   A function of a usually centrally located attendant console that permits the control of multiple switches, some of which may be geographically remote.  A method of communicating telephony supervisory or line signaling (on-hook and off-hook) and address signaling on T1 and E1 digital links.  An electrical signal that determines which column is read or written to on a DRAM chip. You must combine a column address strobe with a row address strobe to define a location on a DRAM chip.  CAS is to automate tedious and sometimes difficult algebraic manipulation tasks. more…  A structure that stores the content and metadata of a document, and all analysis results that are produced by a text analysis engine.  enables users to store and retrieve files based on a file’s name, content or unique identifier. CAS is often deployed in a scale-out RAIN architecture.
CASEcomputer-aided software engineeringAn umbrella term for a collection of application development tools designed to increase programmer productivity.
CAT Communications Authority of Thailand  Computer-Assisted Translation The exclusive operator of Thailand’s international telecommunications services to the rest of the world. In addition to telecommunications services, it provides data communications, mobile and satellite services.  Indicates the use of a series of data processing tools aimed at assisting the translator on a level of coherency (consistency) of the text and in terms of working speed
CAT nCategory nAs in Category 5 (Cat 5), 5e (enhanced), 6 or 6e copper cabling typically used in buildings to connect PCs and telephony handsets to hubs or switches. The category indicates a specific gauge of wiring.
CATIcomputer-aided telephone interviewingTechnology used facilitate information gathering via phone interviews (for example, for survey purposes).
CATIAComputer Aided Three-dimensional Interactive Applicationa multi-platform CAD/CAM/CAE commercial software suite developed by the French company Dassault Systemes and marketed worldwide by IBM
CATPCaffeine Access Transport ProtocolCommon method of moving caffeine across Wide Area Networks such as the Internet . CATP was first used at the Binary Cafe in Cybertown and quickly spread world-wide.
CATSCalling Card & Third Number SettlementAn telephone company system for ICS (intercompany settlements) processed through CMDS (Centralized Message Distribution System).
CATVcommunity antenna television (or Cable TV system)Commonly known as “cable TV.” Television signals are received at a selected site and retransmitted to subscribers via a cable network. Additional channels, not normally available in that area, can also be transmitted.
CAVConstant Angular VelocityA method of reading (or writing) data from (or to) a spinning disk. As data is read from the disk, the drive motor always spins at the same speed.
cBC BeautifierA tool for tidying the syntax of source code.
CBCcipher block chainingA method of reducing repetitive patterns in ciphertext by performing an exclusive-OR operation on each 8-byte block of data with the previously encrypted 8-byte block before it is encrypted.
CBLComposite Blocking ListTakes its source data from very large spamtraps/mail infrastructures, and only lists IPs exhibiting characteristics which are specific to open proxies of various sorts which have been abused to send spam, worms/viruses that do their own mail transmission
CBNcommon bonding networkThe set of metallic components that are intentionally or incidentally interconnected to provide the principal means for effecting bonding and grounding inside a telecommunications building.
CBQClass-Based QueuingA public domain QoS methodology for classifying packets and queuing them according to criteria defined by an administrator to provide differential forwarding behavior for each traffic class
CBPCertifed Biometrics ProfessionalIEEE program focuses on the relevant knowledge and skills needed to apply biometrics to real-world challenges and applications.
cbr filesComic Book ArchiveCBR files rarred file archives with their extension changed from .rar to .cbr
CBR constant bit rate  content based routing An ATM service category, defined by the ATM Forum, that guarantees a constant bandwidth with low delay, jitter and cell loss. Circuit emulation is a typical application.  An optional feature of the caching proxy that provides intelligent routing to back-end application servers. This routing is based on HTTP session affinity and a weighted round-robin algorithm.
CBTComputer Based TrainingA form of education in which the student learns by executing special training programs on a computer. Unlike Web-based training programs, CBT does not require an Internet connection.
CBWFQClass-Based Weighted Fair QueueingExtends the standard WFQ functionality to provide support for user-defined traffic classes. For CBWFQ, you define traffic classes based on match criteria including protocols, ACLs, and input interfaces
cccarbon copyAn option in most e-mail programs, it allows you to send duplicate copies of an e-mail message. When you type a recipient’s e-mail address in the cc field, it is viewable to everyone who receives the e-mail message .
CCclosed captioningA service that transmits text captions for a television program and can be displayed on any modern television with a display size measuring greater than 13 inches (33 cm) diagonally.
CCACitrix Certified AdministratorEntry to mid level certification for IT professionals who want to “demonstrate product expertise on Citrix platform products
CCAscomposite content applicationscase management and front-end access for field personnel to complex back-end applications
CCCClear Channel CapabilityA characteristic of a transmission path in which the bit position allocated for customer data may represent any combination of zeros and ones. . Also refer to Clear Channel
CCDCharge Coupled Devicea solid-state chip containing a series of tiny, light-sensitive photo sites and was originally developed by Honeywell . The heart of all electronic and digital cameras.
CCD+Cash Concentration and Disbursement plus addendaOne of the primary message formats necessary for enterprise-initiated payments to traverse the U.S. national banks’ clearinghouse system. The format is limited to a single addendum record (one invoice, one payment), and many banks can process it.
CCFcall control functionThe network intelligence that provides call/connection processing and control.
CCHconnections per circuit hour A unit of traffic measurement expressed as the number of connections established at a switching point per hour.  A unit of traffic measurement used to express the rate at which circuits are established at a switch.
CCHITCertification Commission for Health Information TechnologyA voluntary, private sector organization launched in 2004 to certify health information technology (HIT) products such as electronic health records and the networks over which they interoperate. www.cchit.org
CCIcontrolled cryptographic itemSecure telecommunications or information handling equipment, or associated cryptographic component, that is unclassified but governed by a special set of control requirements.
CCIECisco Certified Internetwork ExpertCisco Certified Internetwork Expert.
CCIRComite Consultatif International des Radio CommunicationsAbbreviation of the French name for the International Radio Communications Consultative Committee, now part of the ITU.
CCIScommon-channel interoffice signalingIn multichannel switched networks, a method of transmitting all signaling information for a group of trunks by encoding it and transmitting it over a separate channel using time-division digital techniques.
CCITTInternational Telegraph and Telephone Consultative CommitteeFrench acronym for the international standards organization. Part of the United National ITU.
CCLCommunications Control Languagea file that dialers and browsers use to control the modem connection. These files should not be changed except by the supplied editor.
CCNACisco Certified Network AssociateCisco Certified Network Associate
ccNSOCountry Code Names Supporting Organizationthe policy-development body for a narrow range of global issues regarding ccTLD within the ICANN structure. ccnso.icann.org
CCOWClinical Context Object WorkgroupA group that defines standards for collaboration among applications on clinical workstations. Originally an independent consortium, CCOW is now technical committee of the HL7 standards organization.
CCPCertified Computer ProfessionalThe award for successful completion of a comprehensive examination on computers. Also Certificate in Computer Programming.
CCPMCritical Chain Project ManagementLean methodology for doing projects
CCR channel command retry  Cluster Continuous Replication  Commitment, Concurrency and Recovery  Continuity of Care Record  Current Cell Rate In mainframe computing, the protocol used between a channel and a control unit that enables the control unit to request that the channel reissue the current command.  Microsoft Exchange’s capability to replicate data between clustered nodes  An International Organization for Standardization’s OSI application service element used to create atomic operations across distributed systems.  a document standard that functions as an ongoing record of a patient’s care.  The currently acceptable transmission rate for an end-system as defined by RM cells within ABR.
CCS Centum Call Seconds  Coded Character Set  common channel signaling  Control Compliance Suite One hundred call seconds or one hundred seconds of telephone conversation. One hour of telephone traffic is equal to 36 CCS (60 x 60 = 3600 divided by 100 = 36) which is equal to one erlang.  A character set in which each character is assigned a numeric code point.  A method of communicating telephony information and line signaling events (for example, call setup and call clearing) on a dedicated signaling channel.  Symantec’s risk management product to provide end- user organisations with the ability to properly control, and accurately maintain, key IT compliance processes.
CCSAcommon control switching arrangementAn arrangement in which switching for a private network is provided by one or more common control switching systems.
CCSECheckpoint Certified Security ExpertCheckpoint Certification. Stage 2 after completing the CCSA
ccTLDcountry code Top-Level Domainan Internet top-level domain generally used or reserved for a country or a dependent territory.
CCTVClosed-Circuit TelevisionA networked camera used for surveillance, process monitoring and other purposes.
CDCompact DiscAn optical form of storage media, typically used for audio and software programs.
CD Tablechange-data tableIn SQL replication, a replication table on the Capture control server that contains changed data for a replication source table.
CDBcapacity databasecapacity database
CDCcall data channelThe logical link between the device performing an electronic surveillance access function and the LEA (law enforcement agency) that primarily carries call-identifying information.
CDDICopper Distributed Data InterfaceAn American National Standards Institute specification for transmitting FDDI signals over copper media. CDDI runs on both shielded and unshielded twisted-pair cabling.
CDEcommon desktop environmentpopular commercial window manager (and much more — as its name touts, it is more of a desktop environment) that runs under X-Windows. Free work-alike versions are also available.
CDF Channel Definition Format  combined distribution framebA way of defining the server-push channels for accessing frequently changing web content.  A distribution frame that combines the functions of main and intermediate distribution frames and contains both vertical and horizontal terminating blocks.
CDFScompact disc file systemControls access to the contents of CD-ROM drives. Based on the ISO 9660 Standard (but extends it to allow long and double-byte filenames).
CDHCustomer Data HubOracle MDM product
CDI client device identification  Customer Data Integration software detecting account takeovers, new account fraud and e-commerce fraud  combination of the technology, processes and services needed to create and maintain an accurate, timely, complete and comprehensive representation of a customer across multiple channels, business lines, and enterprises.
CDMACode Division Multiple AccessA digital cellular phone service that offers up to 20 times more call-handling capacity than conventional cellular systems by assigning a special electronic code to each signal.
CDNcontent-delivery networkA network specializing in the delivery of streaming audio and video.
CDOcare delivery organizationA category of enterprises that use healthcare information systems. CDOs are organizations, such as hospitals and physician practices, whose primary mission is to deliver healthcare-related services.
CDP Cisco Discovery Protocol  Continuous Data Protection Used by Cisco Routers  technology provided by NetBackup RealTime Protection captures every write at the LUN level
CDPDCellular Digital Packet DataA packet data protocol standard for sending wireless data, it was developed for use on cellular phone frequencies. It transmits data in packets on unused cellular channels (in the 800MHz to 900 MHz range).
CDR call detail recording  clinical data repository A means of capturing telephone system information on calls made for processing into management reports. Captured information includes who made the call, where it went and what time of day it was made.  A database for storage of clinical information in a computer-based patient record
CD-RCompact Disc—Recordablea type of CD that can be recorded by the user. CD-Rs have the same capacity and are readable in the same drives as ordinary CDs
CD-ROMcompact disc read-only memoryA version of the standard CD intended to store general-purpose digital data. CD-ROMs can store a wide variety of data, such as music, video and graphics.
CD-RWCompact disc-rewritableReplacing the CD-ROM in desktop computers is the CD-RW, standing for Compact Disc Rewritable. The CD-RW lets you create backup files or make music compilations by “writing” the files on the disc.
CDSCorrelated Double SamplingTechnology to clean the image signal during scanning
CDTC/C++ Development ToolsEclipse subproject working towards providing a fully functional C and C++ Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for the Eclipse platform
CDVCell Delay VariationA QoS parameter that measures the difference between the transfer delay of a single cell transfer delay and the expected transfer delay.
CE routerCustomer edge routerA router that is part of a customer network and that interfaces to a provider edge (PE) router.
CEAConsumer Electronics AssociationCEA is the industry authority on market research and forecasts; consumer surveys; legislative and regulatory news; engineering standards; training resources. http://www.ce.org
CEAPcloud-enabled application platformscloud-enabled application platforms
CEBPcommunication-enabled business processkey capability of UC is that it offers a method to integrate communication functions directly with business applications
CeCILLCEA CNRS INRIA Logiciel LibreFree Software license adapted to both International and French legal matters, in the spirit of and retaining compatibility with the GNU General Public License.
CEF Cisco Express Forwarding  Character Encoding Form Advanced, Layer 3 IP switching technology. It optimizes network performance and scalability for networks with large and dynamic traffic patterns  Mapping from a character set definition to the actual code units used to represent the data.
CEHCertified Ethical HackerCertification in IT security issued by The International Council of Electronic Commerce Consultants (EC-Council)
CEI Common Event Infrastructure  comparably efficient interconnection The implementation of a set of APIs and infrastructure for the creation, transmission, persistence, and distribution of business, system, and network Common Base Events.  An equal-access concept developed by the FCC..
CEIMCommon Enterprise Information Modelthe ability to define actions and execute processes right from BI metadata
CELL/B.E.Cell Broadband EngineA breakthrough microprocessor with unique capabilities for applications requiring video, 3D graphics, or high-performance computation for imaging, security, visualization, health care, surveillance, and more.
cellphoneCellular TelephoneA mobile, wireless telephone that communicates with a local transmitter using a short-wave analog or digital transmission.
CELPcode-excited linear predictionAn analog-to-digital voice coding scheme.
CEMcustomer experience managementAligning executive involvement, operational processes, organizational structure, and technology infrastructure to stimulate, anticipate, and satisfy customer needs.
CEMFCisco Element Management FrameworkCollects fault information from various sources. Network elements, such as routers or switches, may report fault conditions as SNMP traps, Syslog messages
CEPcomplex event processingSofware infrastructure that can detect patterns of events (and expected events that didn’t occur) by filtering, correlating, contextualizing, and analyzing data captured from disparate live data sources to respond as defined using the platform’s development tools.
CEPSCommon Electronic Purse StandardA standard endorsed by Visa and American Express for electronic purse (e-purse) or stored-value applications on smart cards.
CERCorporate Error ReportingTool that allows IT Administrators to manage error reports and error messages created by the Windows Error Reporting client (WER) in Windows XP and Windows Server 2003
CERNConseil European pour la Recherche NucleaireThe original, French name of the European Organization for Nuclear Research, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. A nuclear research laboratory where the World Wide Web was invented.
CERTComputer Emergency Response TeamA group formed in 1998 by the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
CESCharacter Encoding Scheme Consumer Electronics ShowCES is character encoding form plus byte serialization. There are seven character encoding schemes in Unicode: UTF-8, UTF-16, UTF-16BE, UTF-16LE, UTF-32, UTF-32BE, and UTF-32LE. CES is a major technology-related trade show held each January in the Las Vegas Convention Center.  http://cesweb.org/
CESIDcaller’s emergency service identificationThe number used to identify the calling terminal within the context of the emergency service call.
CEVAcontent-enabled vertical applicationCEVAs typically help to automate complex processes that previously required workers to sort through paper documents and other forms of content manually.
CFCompact Flasha very small removable mass storage device. First introduced in 1994 by SanDisk Corporation, CF memory Cards weigh a half ounce and are the size of a matchbook. CF memory Card is the world’s most popular removable mass storage device.
CFA Circuit Facility Assignment  Color Filter Array Allows Wholesale Access customers to validate the DS1/DS3 at system and channel Levels.  In digital imaging, CFAs assign a separate primary color to each pixel by placing a filter of that color over the pixel
CFBCiphertext feedbacka mode of operation for a block cipher. In contrast to the CBC mode, which encrypts a set number of bits of plaintext at a time, it is at times desirable to encrypt and transfer some plaintext values instantly one at a time, for which ciphertext feedback is a method.
CFM Code Fragment Manager  Cubic Feet per Minute the library manager and code loader for processes based on PEF (Preferred Executable Format) object files (in Carbon).  A measure of airflow, and you can use it to compare the efficiency of fans designed to cool computers or computer components.
CfMDCertified for Microsoft Dynamicsa label for add-on products that ISV have built to expand the functionality of Dynamics
CFMNClient For Microsoft Networks32-bit, protected-mode network client for Windows 9x that provides the redirector and other software components for Microsoft networking
CFVCall For VotesInitiates the voting period for a Usenet newsgroup. At least one email address is customarily included as a repository for the votes.
CGComputer Graphicsgraphics created using computers and, more generally, the representation and manipulation of pictorial data by a computer.
CGAColour Graphics AdaptorA computer standard using digital signals offering a resolution of 320 by 200 pixels, a palette of 16 colors.
CGI Common Gateway Interface  Conseillers en Gestion et Informatique (french) a set of rules for running scripts or programs on a Web server. When you submit information to a Web server, there’s a good chance that the server is using a CGI script to receive and process the data.  “Information Systems and Management Consultants” in English, IT management and business process services (BPS) company. Founded in 1976 and headquartered in Montreal, Canada www.cgi.com
CGMConsumer-generated mediaany written, audio or video content created by end users, using basic or semiprofessional tools.
CGMPCisco Group Multicast ProtocolA form of IGMP snooping that lets the switch send multicasts only to the ports on a VLAN that are participating in the multicast
CHAPChallenge Handshake Authentication ProtocolA security protocol used by a server to grant or deny system access based on a client-supplied password, which is encrypted prior to transmission.
Charsetcharacter setA set of characters used in Windows. Charsets refer to the same collections of characters as those defined by Windows code pages.
chatconversational hypertext access technologyA form of interactive online typewritten communication that allows participants (“members”) to engage in text-message conferencing, via real-time computer networking over designated communications facilities
CHIPSClearing House Interbank Payments SystemA clearing system that processes very large payments (valued at an average of $1.4 trillion a day) in more than 27 countries.
ChRchannel reliabilityThe percentage of time a channel was available for use in a specified period of scheduled availability
cHTMLCompact Hypertext Markup LanguageA proprietary version of HTML adopted by NTT DoCoMo for i-mode.
CIAconfidentiality, integrity, and availabilityInfoSec dimensions.
CIC circuit identification code  Cisco Info Center  Customer Interaction Center A 12-bit number that identifies a trunk and channel on which a call is carried.  A service-level monitoring and diagnostics tool that provides network fault and performance monitoring, trouble isolation, and real-time service-level management for large networks  Interactive Intelligence‘s all-in-one software solution includes telephony, audioconferencing, UM, rich presence with IM, business process automation.
CICSCustomer Information Control SystemA software program designed to OLTP, it was developed by IBM. It is one of the most widely used programs for creating customer transaction systems.
CIDRClassless Internet Domain RoutingA protocol that allows for variable-length addresses that allows for more- and less-specific routing information. This replaces the old class A, class B, class C routing scheme.
CIECommission Internationale de l’EclairageAn organization that has established a number of widely-used color definitions. www.cie.co.at
CIFSCommon Internet File Systemthe file sharing protocol that forms the basis of Microsoft Windows networking. Formerly known as SMB (Server Message Block), it is also supported by UNIX and Linux systems using the Samba software package.
CIKcrypto-ignition keydevice or electronic key used to unlock the secure mode of crypto-equipment.
CIMCommon Information Model Corporate Information Management Computer Integrated ManufacturingProvides a common definition of management information for systems, networks, applications and services, and allows for vendor extensions The organizational structure must be capable of managing this information throughout … Information management is a corporate responsibility that needs to be … manufacturing approach of using computers to control the entire production process.
CINDERCyber Insider Threatprogram soliciting from outsiders novel techniques to insider-threat detection
CIOchief information officerThe top executive in charge of IT in an enterprise.
CIPCommon Industrial Protocolan open industrial protocol for industrial automation applications.
CIPAChildren’s Internet Protection Acta law passed by Congress in 2000 (47 USC 254) requiring libraries to use blocking programs to prevent access to Internet sites with objectionable content
CiRcircuit reliabilityThe percentage of time a circuit was available for use in a specified period of scheduled availability.
CIRcommitted information rateThe average data rate that a carrier commits to support over a given virtual circuit between two end-user sites. The commitment is over a specified period of time, typically one month.
CIS clinical information system  CompuServe Information Service A system used by physicians, nurses, anesthesiologists to develop patient care plans, document care and interventions, monitor and record patient vital signs, manage orders and results, document medication administration, and measure patient outcomes.  now owned by Gateway Computer. CIS has a larger international membership than other US based services. HTTP://WWW.COMPUSERVE.COM
CISCComplex Instruction Set Computera computer with many different machine language instructions. The IBM PC, 68000-based Macintosh, Pentium, IBM 370 mainframe, and VAX are CISC machines.
CISOchief information security officerThe chief executive responsible for information security in an enterprise. The CISO’s responsibilities often bridge the gap between technical security measures and security-related business practices and policies.
CISSPCertified Information Systems Security ProfessionalA certification program administered by the International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium
CIXCommercial Internet ExchangeAn agreeement among network providers that allows them to do accounting for commercial traffic. It is primarily a concern for network providers.
CJK / CJKVChinese, Japanese, and Korean (Vietnamese)A reference to Chinese, Japanese, and Korean languages. Sometimes a “V” for Vietnamese is added to the acronym.
CKDcount key dataIn mainframe computing, a data-record format employing self-defining record formats
CKOchief knowledge officerThe enterprise position responsible for articulating and championing an enterprise’s knowledge management (KM) vision, and for providing enterprise level leadership for implementing and managing the KM program
C/kTcarrier-to-receiver noise densityIn satellite communications, the ratio of the received carrier power to the receiver noise power density.
CLACorporate License AgreementA licensing agreement option under Novell’s “Customer Connections” program. It offers an alternative for midsize organizations that cannot qualify for Novell’s Master License Agreement.
CLASSCustom Local Area Signaling ServicesA generic term describing several local service offerings such as incoming-call identification, call trace, call blocking, automatic return of the most recent incoming call, automatic re-dial, selective call forwarding, etc.
CLECCompetitive Local Exchange CarrierA telephone company that competes with other local phone companies within an exchange, or calling area, to provide local telephone service
CLI Call Level Interface  Calling Line Identification  command line interface An API for database access that provides a standard set of functions to process SQL statements, XQuery expressions, and related services at run time.  A mechanism whereby the number originating a telephone call is passed along with the call. The information allows the called party to know who is calling. In some cases callers can withhold display of their numbers.  A user interface to an operating system or application in which the user types instructions at “command line” prompt displayed on the screen.
CLIPSC Language Integrated Production SystemProductive development and delivery expert system tool which provides a complete environment for the construction of rule and/or object based expert systems
CLLICommon Language Location Identifier11-character code that identifies the wire center from which a call originated.
CLMContract lifecycle managementan integral, back offce technology in many life science segments, including managed-care and payer organizations.
CLNPConnectionLess Network ProtocolThe International Organization for Standardization’s OSI protocol for providing the OSI Connectionless Network Service (datagram service).
CLOBcharacter large objectA data type that contains a sequence of characters (single-byte, multibyte, or both) that can range in size from 0 bytes to 2 gigabytes less 1 byte.
CLR Cell Loss Ratio  common language runtime A QoS parameter that gives the ratio of the lost cells to the total number of transmitted cells.  The runtime interpreter for all .NET Framework applications.
CLTPConnectionLess Transport ProtocolProvides for end-to-end Transport data addressing (via Transport selector) and error control (via checksum), but cannot guarantee delivery or provide flow control.
CLUSRCVRcluster-receiver channelA channel on which a cluster queue manager can receive messages from other queue managers in the cluster, and cluster information from the repository queue managers.
CLUSSDRcluster-sender channelA channel on which a cluster queue manager can send messages to other queue managers in the cluster, and cluster information to the repository queue managers.
CLUTColor LookUp TableThe color options in a graphics system, arranged by index number. Typically, the system has a default color map. The index of colors in the color map can be reallocated, however, depending on the application.
CLVConstant Linear VelocityA technology which revolves around (no pun intended) rotating a disk at varying speeds. By changing rotation speed depending on which track is being accessed, the density of bits in each track can be made uniform.
CMACircular Mil AreaA unit of area equal to the area of a circle whose diameter is 1 mil (0.001 inch). Used chiefly in specifying cross-sectional areas of conductors.
CMCcomputer-mediated communicationhuman communication via computers and includes many different forms of synchronous, asynchronous or real-time interaction that humans have with each other using computers as tools to exchange text, images, audio and video.
CMDBconfiguration management databaseCMDB is a database that contains all relevant information about the components of the information system used in an organization’s IT services and the relationships between those components.
CMECommon Malware EnumerationCME number is a unique, vendor-neutral identifier for a particular threat. The CME initiative is an effort headed by the United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT), in collaboration with key organizations within the security community.
CMIPCommon Management Information ProtocolThe International Organization for Standardization’s OSI network management protocol.
CMIS common management information service  Content Management Interoperability Services In OSI, the set of services defined by ISO 9595. The common management information service is used by agent processes and managing processes to communicate.  API support for interoperability
CMMCapability Maturity ModelStrategy for improving the software process, irrespective of the actual life-cycle model used
CMOScomplementary metal-oxide semiconductora type of integrated circuit noted for its extremely low power consumption and its vulnerability to damage from static electricity. CMOS devices are used in digital watches, pocket calculators, microprocessors, and computer memories.
CMOTCMip Over TcpAn effort to use the International Organization for Standardization’s OSI network management protocol to manage TCP/IP networks.
CMRRcommon-mode rejection ratioThe ratio of the common-mode interference voltage at the input of a circuit, to the corresponding interference voltage at the output.
CMRSCommercial Mobile Radio ServiceA radio communication service between mobile stations or receivers and land stations, or by mobile stations communicating among themselves, that is provided for profit, and that makes interconnected service available to the public.
CMS Color management system  content management system This ensures color uniformity across input and output devices so that final printed results match originals. The characteristics or profiles of devices are normally established by reference to standard color targets.  a web application designed to make it easy for non-technical users to add, edit and manage a website.
CMTScable modem termination systema system of devices located in the cable head-end that allows cable television operators to offer high-speed Internet access to home computers.
CNAConverged Network Adaptera technology that supports data networking (TCP/IP) and storage networking (Fibre Channel) traffic on a single I/O adapter.
CNAMCaller ID With NameCaller ID With Name
CNAMECanonical nameA host’s official name as opposed to an alias. The official name is the first hostname listed for its Internet address in the hostname database.
CNECertified Novell Engineer (also Certified Network Engineer)A certification initiated by Novell to qualify certain individuals that have demonstrated high standards of knowledge in the areas of hardware used in and software configuration of the Novell Network operating system.
CNGIChina’s Next Generation InternetChinese: 中国下一代互联网, a five year plan initiated by the Chinese government with the purpose of gaining a significant position in the future development of the Internet through the early adoption of IPv6.
CNNCable News Network composite network nodeCable News Network (CNN) is a U.S. cable news channel founded in 1980 by Ted Turner.  http://www.cnn.com/ A type 5 node and its subordinate type 4 nodes that support APPN network node protocols and appear to an attached APPN or LEN node as a single network node.
CNR Carrier to Noise Ratio  combat-net radio An indication of the quality of the modulated signal.  A radio operating in a network that (a) provides a half-duplex circuit and (b) uses either a single radio frequency or a discrete set of radio frequencies when in a frequency hopping mode.
COcentral officeThe telephone company’s centralized switching facility, where subscriber loops terminate. The CO handles a specific geographical area (known as a local exchange), identified by the first “n” digits of the local telephone number.
CoACare Of AddressTemporary IP Address used by a mobile user when roaming onto a foreign IP network. It is used within mobile IP and can either be leased from the HA (Home Agent) or FA (Foreign Agent)
COAMcustomer owned and maintainedUser provided and serviced communications equipment and its associated wiring. 
coaxcoaxial (cable)Cable consisting of a hollow outer cylindrical conductor that surrounds a single inner wire conductor.
COBITControl Objectives for Information and related Technologiesa comprehensive approach to good IT practices. In its third revision, it offers a wide range of tools, guidelines, standards and a control framework for the management of information technologies.
COBOLCommon Business Orientated LanguageMany mainframe computer applications were once written in this programming language.
COCOMOCOnstructive COst MOdelA technique for estimating the effort and duration of a software project based on its estimated size created by Barry Boehm
COD Call of Duty  confirm on delivery  Connection Oriented Data Call of Duty is a first-person and third-person shooter video game series.  http://www.callofduty.com/  A feature of WebSphere MQ that allows a notification to be sent to a source application whenever a target application receives a message from the source application.  Data requiring sequential delivery of its component PDUs to assure correct functioning of its supported application, (e.g., voice or video).
CoDAContext Delivery Architecturean architectural style of business software that builds on SOA and event-driven architecture (EDA) interaction and partitioning styles, and that adds formal mechanisms for the software elements to discover and apply their context in real time.
CODECcoder/decoder or compressor-decompressorA communications device used to convert analog signals to digital form for transmission over a digital medium, and back again to the original analog form. A codec is required at each end of the channel.
COEComponent Object modElthe fundamental class of Microsoft’s attempt to defuse the growth of Java platform-independent code.
COEscenters of excellencesoftware management concept
COINCommunity Of Interest NetworkA COIN provides a way of giving members of a shared-interest community access to privileged information.
COLDcomputer output to laserdiscA microfiche replacement system. COLD systems offer economies as a replacement medium when rapid or frequent access to archived documents is necessary.
coloco-locationPutting a web server in a dedicated facility that provides high-speed Internet connection, security, environment, backup power, and technical support.  Unlike the dedicated server, the client controls both hardware and software.  
com (.com)commercialOne of several top-level domains assigned to URLs that are of a commercial nature. Other domain suffixes include .ac, .co, .mil, .gov, .net, .org, and a long list of country codes.
COM communications port  Component Object Model  computer output to microfiche A port that allows an application to access a modem.  A specification that Microsoft developed for building software components that can be assembled into programs or that add functionality to existing programs running on Microsoft Windows platforms.  A system (also called “computer output to microfilm”) in which digital data is converted into an image on dry-processed microfilm.
COMDEXComputer Dealers ExpoA hardware and software exposition started in 1978, it has become the place to announce new product launches and to rub elbows with VCs and representatives from high-tech firms all over the world. In America, it takes place twice a year.
COMPAQCOMPatibilty And QualityUsed to refer to the fact that their computers were both IBM PC compatible and very reliable. In 2002, Compaq merged with Hewlett-Packard.
COMPARECompliance Progress and ReadinessA scale introduced by Gartner in 1997 to assist business units, enterprises or business partners in measuring their progress toward year 2000 compliance.
COMSATCommunications Satellite CorporationA United States company created by an act of Congress in 1962 to provide communications via satellites. COMSAT leases satellite circuits to many American companies.
COOLC++ Object Oriented LanguageA Microsoft application development tool initiative and language; a predecessor to C#.
COOPContinuity of Operations Planoutlines steps that an agency will take in the event a disaster interrupts business. Continuity plans require agencies to designate functions as essential or nonessential.
COPPAChildren’s Online Privacy Protection ActLegislation passed by the U.S. Congress in 1998 prohibiting the use of unfair or deceptive practices to gather personal information about individuals under the age of 13.
COPS Common Open Policy Service  Communications Outsourcing and Professional Services An IETF proposed standard defining a simple protocol for provisioning QoS by outsourcing policy-based admission control over requests for network resources  IT services in support of enterprise communications and connectivity include maintenance and support, consulting, application development, integration and ongoing management of IT and related business processes.
CORcentral outdoor routerthe central router in a multi-device WLAN.
CORBACommon Object Request Broker Architecturea standard API for distributed object communication. CORBA was created by the Object Management Group. It is the most widely used distributed object standard for connecting operating system platforms from multiple vendors. HTTP://WWW.OMG.ORG.
CORECOMPARE Operational Readiness EvaluationGartner‘s CORE risk assessment and reporting steps are used to define business operational risks, to report risks to management, investors, regulators and customers in a consistent form, and to determine when contingency and recovery strategies are required.
CORSContinuously Operating Reference Stationnetwork managed by the U.S. ofce of National Ocean Service (NOAA) to provide GNSS data consisting of carrier phase measurements throughout the United States.
CoSclass of serviceA classification method for providers to deliver different levels of QOS. Providers will typically offer a number of classes for different types of traffic, such as different COS for voice, video and data.
COSCloud Optimized StorageEMC’s cloud platform Atmos
COTScommercial off-the-shelfDescriptive term for software that can be purchased from an external supplier, as opposed to that which is developed within the enterprise.
COWCopy-On-WritePart of a snapshot, and keeps track of disk changes since the snapshot was taken.
CPACost Per Actionfor banner ads; the fee charged every time a user completes a desired action, such as filling out a form, downloading software, or viewing a series of pages.
CPANComprehensive Perl Archive Networkan archive of over 16,000 modules of software written in Perl, as well as documentation for it
cPanelcontrol panelindustry standard web hosting control panel, cPanel provides a Graphical User Interface (GUI) for many Linux system administration tasks.
CPC Calling Party Control  Cost Per Click A short break in the line current in the called party’s phone line when the calling party hangs up; not the same as FLASH.  Term used by affiliate programs indicating a payment rate per advertisement click. or Pay Per Click
CPEcustomer premises equipmentAny telephone apparatus, including telephone handsets, PBX switching equipment, key and hybrid telephone systems, and add-on devices, that is physically located on a customer’s property.
CPFCloud Provisioning Fabricportability between different clouds
cpicharacters per inchThe number of characters printed horizontally within an inch across a page.
CPLDComplex Programmable Logic DeviceA typical CPLD is the equivalent of two to 64 SPLDs. A CPLD typically contains from tens to a few hundred macrocells.
CPMcorporate performance managementCPM includes the processes used to manage corporate performance, such as strategy formulation, budgeting and forecasting; the methodologies that drive some processes, including the balanced scorecard, or value-based management.
CPNcalling party numberA set of digits and related indicators (type of number, numbering, plan identification, screening indicator, presentation indicator) that provide numbering information related to the calling party.
CPNICustomer Proprietary Network InformationInformation which is available to a telephone company by virtue of the telephone company’s basic service customer relationship.
CPOEComputerized Provider Order Entrya computer application that allows a physician’s orders for diagnostic and treatment services (such as medications, laboratory, and other tests) to be entered electronically instead of being recorded on order sheets or prescription pads.
CPRMContent Protection for Removable Mediaa hardware-based technology designed to enforce copy protection restrictions through built-in mechanisms in storage media that would prevent unauthorized file copying.
cpsCharacters Per SecondPrinting engine speed
CPSContinuous Protection ServerBackup exec option allows administrators to continuously capture and back up data changes to allow administrators to restore data to any point in time
CPUCall Pick Up Central Processing Unit Critical Patch UpdateCPU is PABX phone systems term The CPU controls the computer, runs all the programs on the computer and processes all of the data and can be thought of as the ‘brain’ of the computer. CPU is Oracle patch term
CRACKChallenge/Response Authentication of Cryptographic Keya protocol for the secure exchange of keys, used by Nokia primarily.
CRCCyclic Redundancy CheckAn error check in which the check key is generated by a cyclic algorithm
CRLcertificate revocation listA list of certificates that have been revoked before their scheduled expiration date. Certificate revocation lists are maintained by the certificate authority and used, during a SSL handshake to ensure that the certificates involved have not been revoked.
CRLFcarriage return, line feeda pair of ASCII codes, 13 and 10, that tell a terminal or printer to return to the beginning of the line and advance to the next line.
CRMCustomer Relationship ManagementCRM refers to solutions and strategies for managing businesses’ relationships with customers. With the advent of Web retailing, companies have found it hard to develop relationships with customers since the e-commerce interface is so impersonal.
CRMBCustomer Reference Material DatabaseIBM term
cROIcompanywide ROIThe incremental cash flow — cost savings and revenues — generated by online retail technology throughout a multichannel company.
CRRContinuous Remote ReplicationContinuous Remote Replication
CRTCathode Ray TubeCRT is the technology used in traditional computer monitors and televisions. The image on a CRT display is created by firing electrons from the back of the tube
CRUDCreate, Read, Update, DeleteUsed to describe access rights for data.
cryptoCryptographyThe study of decryption and encryption technologies.
CS Computer science  Creative Suite the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation, and of practical techniques for their implementation and application in computer systems.  a Web suite text and WYSIWYG Web page editor. Core applications from Macromedia Studio have been merged with Adobe CS since CS3, including Flash, Dreamweaver, and Fireworks.  http://www.adobe.com/products/creativesuite/
CSA cloud service agreements  Communications Streaming Architecture  Composite Services Architecture a disclaimer of liability relating to service quality and availability; disclaimer of liability for any third-party action; and unilateral rights to limit, suspend, or terminate the service.  Directly connects the Memory Controller Hub to the network controller. With CSA-based motherboards, network data can be transferred at a much higher rate with lower latency  OASIS Open CSA, which goal is to advance the SCA and SDO families of specifications, which will simplify the development of applications having SOA.
CSC card security code  Circuit Switched Cellular  Computer Sciences Corporation  Content Security and Control refer to CVV2  Offers wide coverage. Used for large data transfers  An IT consulting, outsourcing and system integration firm, founded in 1959 and headquartered in El Segundo, California. http://csc.com  Cisco ASA add-in modules for anti-X features (such as URL filtering, antivirus, anti-spam and antispyware)
CSCFcall session control functionCSCF is a functional entity within IMS and part of 3GPP UMTS Reference Architecture.
CSCWcomputer supported co-operative workany technology system that relies on combinations of hardware and software resources to enable groups of people to collaborate and share technology.
CSDCisco Secure Desktopallows secure VPN connections from remote PCs and offers functionality to ensure PCs meet administrator approved
CSEcustom search engineThe search engine that you create and customize using Google Custom Search.
CselCable SelectThis is basically Plug-and-Play ATA. You plug in your ATA/IDE hard drives, set them to CSEL (Cable Select), and they determine whether they are master or slave automatically, saving you from manual configuration.
CSFscritical success factorscritical success factors
CSGCommunications Services GroupOn May 1, 2009, TNS completed the acquisition of the CSG from VeriSign, Inc.
CSMA/CACarrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision AvoidanceCSMA/CA is the medium access method used by IEEE 802.11 WLANs.
CSMA/CDCarrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision DetectionA protocol in which stations listen to the bus and only transmit when the bus is free. If a collision occurs, the packet is retransmitted after a random time-out. Ethernet uses CSMA/CD.
CSO chief sourcing officer  Cold Start Only An enterprise executive responsible for the implementation of successful dynamic sourcing strategies, and effecting these strategies through IT service delivery that uses an ever-changing resource pool.  In ISDN is a capability of a Network Terminator 1 (NT1)
CSP Chip-scale packaging  Communications service providers  Crystal Server Pages smaller “packages” for flash devices, such as FBGA and uBGA.  Communications service providers  A page that contains HTML/VB/JavaScript that is processed by the Web Component Server in the Crystal Enterprise eBusiness Framework
CSSCascading Style SheetCascading style sheets are used to format the layout of Web pages. They can be used to define text styles, table sizes, and other aspects of Web pages that previously could only be defined in a page’s HTML.
CSS-Pcascading style sheet positioningUse of a cascading style sheet to position Web page elements using pixel locations or locations relative to other elements.
CSTConsolidated Service TestEnhances the way IBM tests and recommends maintenance packages for z/OS and OS/390 software, including the major subsystems
CSU Certificate Signing Unit  Channel Service Unit A tamperproof storage mechanism used by a certifying authority (CA) to store private keys.  Customer premises equipment that provides basic digital transmission at various speeds. Also AT&T unit that is part of the AT&T nonswitched digital data system.
CSV Circuit Switched Voice  comma separated values Support for CSV on an ISDN line allows for the placement of voice calls on an ISDN line.  Commonly used no-frills text file format used for import from and import to spreadsheets and SQL databases.
CSWchannel status wordAn area in storage used to indicate the status of a device and channel involved in an I/O operation.
CT China Telecom Contone China Telecom Corporation Limited (Chinese: 中国电信) is a Chinese state-owned telecommunication company  An abbreviation for continuous tone. A color or greyscale image format capable of illustrating continuously varying tonal ranges, as opposed to line art.
CTCpClient-To-Client-Protocola feature of some IRC clients
CTDCell Transfer DelayA QoS parameter that measures the average time for a cell to be transferred from its source to its destination over a virtual channel (VC) connection.
CTIcomputer-telephony integrationThe intelligent linking of computers with telephony, enabling coordinated voice and data transfers to the desktop.
CTOchief technology officerThe enterprise position responsible for managing technology infrastructure and resources, including technology deployment, network and system management, integration testing, and developing technical operations personnel.
CTPcapable to promiseA system that allows an enterprise to commit orders against available capacity, as well as inventory. These systems are evolving to include multiple sites, as well as the entire distribution network.
CTRClick-Through RateWeb publishers typically generate revenue from advertisers each time a visitor clicks on one of the advertisements
ctrlcontrolThis refers to the Control key on your keyboard, it is often used for shortcuts.
CTS clear to send  common transport semantics A control packet used by a destination station to indicate its readiness to receive data. A destination station responds to a Request To Send (RTS) by transmitting a CTS.  The layer of the Networking Blueprint above the transport layer that makes the services of transport providers available to the transport user.
CTTChina Tietong Telecommunicationsa major state-owned basic telecommunications operator in China. Its former name was China Railcom (China Railway Communication Corporation, Limited). http://www.chinatietong.com
CTXCommited to ExcellenceCTX Technology Corporation (Commited to Excellence)
CUGclosed user groupIn data communication, a group of users who can communicate with other users in the group, but not with users outside the group. A data terminal equipment (DTE) may belong to more than one closed user group.
CUoDCapacity Upgrade on DemandAn option available on certain IBM systems that allows a customer to activate additional processor capacity when needed.
CUPSCommon Unix Printing SystemProvides a portable printing layer for UNIX-based operating systems. It is developed by Easy Software Products to promote a standard printing solution and is the standard printing system in MacOS X and most Linux distributions www.cups.org
CVPContent Vectoring ProtocolA specification developed by Check Point Software, used for content screening and antivirus checking.
CVS Computer Vision Syndrome  Concurrent Versions System The name for eye and vision problems experienced during computer use. People are using light therapy to combat CVS (including ultraviolet and full-spectrum wavelengths).  A programming code management system.
CVSDContinuous Variable Slope Delta modulationA method of digit ally encoding speech using a one- bit sample to encode the difference between two successive signal levels, usually 32,000 times a second.
CVV2 / CVC / CVC2Card Verification Value 2 / Card Verification Code /Card Validation Code 2The last part of the code above the signature strip on modern credit and debit cards, which is often required by online shops to verify that the card is genuine.
CYMKcyan, magenta, yellow, blackAn abbreviation denoting the traditional four-color printing process; the name derives from the four ink colors used. The majority of printed color paper and photographic documents incorporate the CMYK process.
 Cprogramming language developed at Bell Laboratories in the 1970s, based on the two earlier languages B (1970) and BCPL (1967).
 C#pronounced “C sharp”, a programming language developed by Anders Hejlsberg (the developer of Turbo Pascal and Delphi) for Windows programming under Microsoft’s .NET Framework.
 CachePronounced “Cash”. A temporary storage area for frequently accessed information. The cache shortens the time it takes to access this information, relieves the burden from the main memory, and increases the overall speed of applications.
 carbon neutralalso called carbon neutrality, used to describe the action of organizations, businesses and individuals taking action to remove as much carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as each put in to it.
 Carnivorean Internet surveillance system developed for the U.S. FBI so that they could monitor the electronic transmissions of criminal suspects. Critics, however, charged that Carnivore did not include appropriate safeguards to prevent misuse and might violate the constitutional rights of the individual. The EPIC reported in early 2005 that the FBI had replaced Carnivore with other, unspecified surveillance software from commercial sources.
 carrierA network operator may market any number of communication services for voice and data. Carriers offer their services to both end-customers (private or business) and other carriers. In the latter case, the service simply consists of transport capacity for long-distance traffic.
 Cascade A method of connecting circuits together in series to make the output of one, the input of the next. This kind of end-to-end connectivity is useful in extending the distance of a network.  A method of displaying several windows of information on a monitor.
 CECE-marking is a European Union regulatory community sign. It symbolizes the compliance of the product with all essential requirements relating to safety, public health, consumer protection.  http://www.eurunion.org/
 CentrexA service provided from a reserved section of the main public exchange that has been reprogrammed to act as if it were the exclusive PBX of an individual user, in other words a ‘virtual’ PBX.
 certificateDigital representation of user or device attributes, including a public key, that is signed with an authoritative private key.
 Channel BankChannel terminal equipment used for combining (multiplexing) channels on a frequency-division or time-division basis.
 chipa miniaturized electronic circuit that has been manufactured in the surface of a thin substrate of semiconductor material
 Chromea powerful Google browser that loads Web pages quickly and accurately. www.google.com/chrome
 cipherA cryptographic algorithm used to encrypt data that is unreadable until converted into plain data with a predefined key.
 clear channelA channel that uses out-of-band signaling (as opposed to in-band signaling), so the channel’s entire bit rate is available.
 cloud computingCloud computing is a general term for anything that involves delivering hosted services over the Internet. These services are broadly divided into three categories: Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS).
 clusterprocess of connecting multiple servers together in order to provide greater overall system availability, performance, and capacity for your server platforms.
 compilerA software-development tool that translates high-level language programs into the machine-language instructions that a particular processor can understand and execute.
 Computer-Brain Interfaceinterpret distinct brain patterns, shifts and signals as commands that can be used to guide a computer or other device.
 concurrentA way to measure the usage of software licenses. Rather than limiting usage based on the number of people who are entitled to use the software, a concurrent-use license places a limit on the number of people who may do so simultaneously.
 ConvergenceThe consolidation of all communications – voice, data and video – onto a single network infrastructure.
 Cookiea piece of information sent by a Web Server to a Web Browser that the Browser software is expected to save and to send back to the Server whenever the browser makes additional requests from the Server.
 CraigslistCraigslist is a centralized network of online communities featuring free online classified advertisements, with sections devoted to jobs, housing, personals, for sale, services, community, gigs, résumés, and discussion forums.  http://www.craigslist.org/
 Cut-throughTechnique for examining incoming packets where Ethernet switch looks only at first few bytes of packet before forwarding or filtering it. Faster than looking at whole packet but allows some bad packets to be forwarded.
 CursorThe representation of the mouse on the screen. It may take many different shapes. Example: I-beam, arrow pointer, and hand.

D – List of terms starting with the letter “D”

E – List of terms starting with the letter “E”

F – List of terms starting with the letter “F”

G – List of terms starting with the letter “G”

H – List of terms starting with the letter “H”

I – List of terms starting with the letter “I”

J – List of terms starting with the letter “J”

K – List of terms starting with the letter “K”

L – List of terms starting with the letter “L”

M – List of terms starting with the letter “M”

N – List of terms starting with the letter “N”

O – List of terms starting with the letter “O”

P – List of terms starting with the letter “P”

Q – List of terms starting with the letter “Q”

R – List of terms starting with the letter “R”

S – List of terms starting with the letter “S”

T – List of terms starting with the letter “T”

U – List of terms starting with the letter “U”

V – List of terms starting with the letter “V”

W – List of terms starting with the letter “W”

W3CWorld Wide Web ConsortiumAn organization formed in 1994 to promote the Web’s evolution as a platform for information, commerce and communication. The W3C, which has more than 500 member organizations, has developed XML and a variety of XML-related specifications.
WAAWide Area AdapterAn adapter connecting to a WAN.
WAASWide Area Augmentation Systema collection of satellites and ground stations that send out GPS signal corrections to provide increased position accuracy.
WABWindows Address BookFilename extension by Microsoft
WACWholesale Applications CommunityWholesale Applications Community
WACK / WAKWait acknowledgementThis means the receiving station is not ready to receive the ACK.
WADSwrite-ahead data setA data set containing log records that reflect completed operations and are not yet written to an online log data set.
WAEWireless Application Environmentthe top most level in the WAP suite, which combines both the WWW and Mobile Telephony technologies.
WAFWeb application firewallAttacks against Web-based applications, as well as PCI requirements to address Web application security
WAI-ARIAWeb Accessibility Initiative – Accessible Rich Internet Applicationsa draft technical specification published by the World Wide Web Consortium that specifies how to increase the accessibility of dynamic content and user interface components developed with Ajax, HTML, JavaScript and related technologies.
WAISWide Area Information ServersDeveloped in the early 1990s WAIS was the first truly large-scale system to allow the indexing of huge quantities of information on the Web, and to make those indices searchable across networks such as the Internet. WAIS was also pioneering in its use of ranked (scored) results where the software tries to determine how relevant each result it.
WALwats access lineA line class marked as a WATS line, provided from an equal access end office. The WATS access line provides the same service and features as a normal business line.
WALEwats access line extensionA WAL provided to a customer served by an end office which has not been converted to equal access through an end office which has been converted. 
WAMPWindows, Apache, Mysql, PHP (or Perl or Phyton)Web applications platform
WANWide-area NetworkUsed to distinguish the broader telecommunication structure from a local area network (LAN). A wide area network may be composed entirely of private structures, but the term seems to also connote the inclusion of public networks and all kinds of transmission media.
WAPWireless Application ProtocolWAP is a set of specifications developed by the WAP Forum for efficient communication of data over wireless networks to small devices, such as personal digital assistants and cell phones. We’re not talking Cardi B’s WAP.
WARIAWorkflow And Reengineering International AssociationThe charter of the WARIA is to identify and clarify issues that are common to users of workflow, electronic commerce and those who are in the process of reengineering their organizations. See also  http://www.waria.com/
WASWeb Application ServerWeb Application Server
WATSWide Area Telecommunications/Telephone ServiceLong distance service provided by various carriers that includes both intrastate and interstate service for outgoing and incoming (800) calls. WATS provides a bulk savings plan for companies with a high volume of toll calls, such as telemarketing.
WAVEWide Area Virtualization EngineCisco’s engine perform WAN optimization focused on Layer 4 to Layer 7 (application layer) and host Windows Services through virtualization components at the branch
WBEMWeb-Based Enterprise ManagementAn initiative started by BMC software, Compaq, Cisco, Intel and Microsoft in 1996 and accepted by the Desktop Management Task Force (now known as the “Distributed Management Task Force”) in 1998.
WBMPWireless BitMaPa graphic format optimized for mobile computing devices. A WBMP image is identified using a TypeField value, which describes encoding information
WCFWindows Communication FoundationSet of .NET technologies for building and running connected systems
WCS Web customer service  Websphere Commerce Server WCS framework consists of Knowledge base for self-service, E-mail response management, web chat, Collaborative browsing and Multichannel interaction recording.  IBM Software platform framework for e-commerce, including marketing, sales, customer and order processing functionality in a tailorable, integrated package
WDWestern DigitalAn industry leader in the disk drive and drive controller industry. http://www.westerndigital.com
WDDMWindows Display Driver ModelThe graphics driver model supported by Windows Vista that’s required for display of the full Aero Glass effects.
WDDXWeb Distributed Data Exchangean XML based technology that facilitates complex data exchange between Web programming languages (ColdFusion, Perl, ASP, Java, JavaScript, PHP, and others).
WDFWindows Driver FoundationStrategy for the next generation of Windows drivers. WDF defines a single driver model that supports the creation of object-oriented, event-driven drivers for either kernel mode or user mode
WDMWavelength Division MultiplexingOptical transmission technique in which two or more wavelengths, are combined for transmission over a single optical fiber. At the receiving end, the wavelengths are separated and directed to separate receivers.
WDOGWatchdog protocolprovides constant validation of active workstation connections and notifies the NetWare operating system when a connection may be terminated as a result of lengthy periods without communication
WDSWireless Distribution Systema technology that enables access points to communicate with one another in order to extend the range of a wireless network. WDS is appearing in 802.11g-based access points.
WDTwatchdog timera 16 bit counter that resets the processor when it rolls over to zero. The watchdog timer is a fail-safe mechanism that intervenes if a system stops functioning or in case of a code crash.
WebCamWEB CAMerakind of cheap TV camera which you can use for videoconferencing over the internet, or just showing off
WebDAVWeb-based Distributed Authoring and VersioningA set of extensions to the HTTP protocol that allows multiple users to not only read but also to add, delete, and change documents residing on a web server.   In order to use WebDAV you need WebDAV client software to connect to a HTTP server that has the WebDAV extensions installed.
webinar(web seminar)a group of people viewing a seminar presented over the Web
WEEEWaste Electrical and Electronic EquipmentEuropean Union directive (2002/96/EC) making manufacturers responsible for financing the recycling of end-of-life equipment.
WEPWired Equivalent PrivacyWEP: wireless feature used to encrypt and decrypt data signals transmitted between Wireless LAN (WLAN) devices. An optional 802.11 feature (see 802.11), WEP provides data confidentiality equivalent to that of a wired LAN that does not employ advanced cryptographic techniques to enhance privacy.
WESWebsense Email SecurityWebsense SEG product
WFMWired For Management BaselineAn Intel hardware specification for easier management of desktop PCs in a networked environment.
WfMCWorkFlow Management CoalitionNon-profit, international organization of workflow vendors, users, analysts and university/research groups. See also  http://www.wfmc.org/
WFOworkforce optimizationsolution to improve operational efficiency and drive interaction effectiveness
WFQweighted fair queuingCongestion management algorithm that identifies conversations (in the form of traffic streams), separates packets that belong to each conversation, and ensures that capacity is shared fairly between these individual conversations. WFQ is an automatic way of stabilizing network behavior during congestion and results in increased performance and reduced retransmission.
WGAWindows Genuine AdvantageWGA is a program that investigates Windows -based computers to be sure that their copy of the Windows OS is legitimate. The system checks the OS version, the product key, the license key, the hard disk serial number and other information about the hardware and software in the computer.
WHISPERWindows Highly Intelligent SPEech RecognitionWindows Highly Intelligent SPEech Recognition
WHQLWindows Hardware Quality LabA Microsoft group that provides and manages testing programs to ensure that your hardware and drivers qualify for the Windows Logo Program (WLP).
WIAWindows Image AcquisitionStandardized API for acquiring digital images from devices that are primarily used to capture still images and for managing these devices
WiBroWireless Broadbanda wireless broadband internet technology being developed by the Korean telecoms industry.
WICWan Interface CardWan Interface Card of Cisco router
Wi-FiWireless FidelityIt is pretty much a rip-off of the term “Hi-Fi,” or High Fidelity, which refers to high-quality audio or surround sound. Wi-Fi refers to wireless network components that are based on one of the Wi-Fi Alliance’s 802.11 standards.
wikiWhat I Know IsTypically used to describe a collaborative (or community) project allowing visitors to edit webpages and add content for the benefit of the group or community. Relevant Links: * http://en.wikipedia.org/ – Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Possibly the best known WIKI.
WiMaxWorld Interoperability for Microwave Accessalso known as IEEE 802.16 — is an emerging global broadband wireless standard; a large number of companies back standardization and certification work through the WiMAX Forum.
WIMPSwindows, icons, menus, pointers, scroll barsA style of graphical user interface originally developed by Xerox, popularized by the Apple Macintosh and adopted by Microsoft for Windows.
WINEWine Is Not an EmulatorWindows Emulator for Unix platforms
WinFSWindows Future Storagethe code name for a data storage and management system based on relational databases, developed by Microsoft and first demonstrated in 2003
WinkeyWindows keyAkey marked with the Microsoft Windows logo and found on some PC keyboards. It provides a shortcut to some Windows menus
WINSWindows Internet Name ServiceA system that determines the IP address associated with a particular network computer. This is called name resolution.
WinsockWindows socketsfiles that allow Windows programs to connect to the Internet and other computers.
Wintel (slang)Windows and IntelThe hardware and software combination of an Intel CPU running Microsoft Windows. Often used with the word “platform” in opposition to the UNIX or Macintosh platforms. Sometimes used in a derogatory sense to connote the monopoly powers that Intel and Microsoft yield.
WIPOWorld Intellectual Properties Organizationan UN organization, based in Geneva, Switzerland, formed for the purpose of promoting the protection of intellectual property copyrights worldwide through treaty agreements between all participating countries.  http://www.wipo.org/
WLANwireless LANA LAN communication technology in which radio, microwave or infrared links take the place of physical cables. Three physical media types of WLAN are available. The first two — direct-sequence spread spectrum (see DSSS) and frequency-hopping spread spectrum (see FHSS) — are based on radio technologies that are not interoperable.
WLLwireless local loopA wireless connection of a wireless phone or other device in a home or office to a fixed network. WLL systems are point-to-multipoint radio-based products used to provide fixed wireless access to networks and services.
WMIWindows Management InstrumentationMicrosoft’s implementation of Web-Based Enterprise Management (WBEM), which is an industry initiative to develop a standard technology for accessing management information in an enterprise environment
WMLWebsite Meta LanguageFree and extensible Webdesigner’s off-line HTML generation toolkit for Unix, distributed under the GNU General Public License. See also  http://thewml.org/
WMLWireless Markup LanguageAn XML-based markup language, designed for specifying the content and user interfaces of narrowband wireless devices, such as pagers and cellular phones.
WMOSWarehouse Management for Open SystemsManhattan Associates WMS offering, which includes Manhattan’s other supply chain solutions, such as transportation, distributed order management, replenishment and planning.
WMPWindows Media PlayerMicrosoft Windows Media Player is a famous digital media player and media library program,, now windows media player 11.
WMSwarehouse management systemWMS is a software application that supports the day-to-day operations in a warehouse. WMS programs enable centralized management of tasks such as tracking inventory levels and stock locations. WMS systems may be standalone applications or part of an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system.
WOAWeb-oriented architecturean architectural substyle of service-oriented architecture (SOA) and is based on the representational state transfer (REST) architectural principles off the World Wide Web
WOLWake On LANThe ability of a network card to wake up a PC that is powered down or on standby (i.e. sleep or suspected), when a wake-up message is received across the LAN.
WORMwrite once, read manyA storage medium on which information can be recorded once and read many times. Most optical storage technologies use WORM media, in contrast to magnetic media (such as tape), which can be re-recorded.
WOSWireless Office Systemsa technology that allows the user to transfer calls to a mobile telephone.
WOSAWindows Open Service ArchitectureAn architecture and set of application programming interfaces that position Windows as a universal client. It standardizes the interfaces that developers can use in accessing underlying network services.
WOWWorld of Warcraft World Organization of WebmastersA very popular MMORPG where users can take on fantasy avatars and play together to attack different enemies in a very detailed and extensive virtual world. sponsors several web-related certifications and provides widely accepted certification standards.
WOW!(formerly) WideOpenWestcable provider in the U.S.  http://www.wowway.com/
WPAWi-Fi Protected AccessWPA is a security protocol designed to create secure Wi-Fi networks. It is similar to the WEP protocol, but offers improvements in the way it handles security keys and the way users are authorized.
WPADWeb Proxy AutoDiscoveryan Internet protocol that enables a Web browser to automatically connect to a cache server (or proxy server) location in a network in order to retrieve stored Web pages at a quicker rate than having to leave the network
WPARWorkload PARtitionFeature introduced with the IBM AIX® Version 6.1 operating system. It allows running applications to move between System p machines or System p logical partitions (LPARs)
WPFWindows Presentation FoundationNew window system that comes pre-installed on Microsoft Windows Vista
WPLOWarranty Parts/Labor/OnsiteThere are three components of HP Standard Warranty, specifically Parts, Labor and Onsite. There are variations depending on the model, e.g. some models include 1/1/1 (One year Parts, One year Labor, One year Onsite) or 3/3/0 (Three years Parts, Three years Labor and no onsite; pick up and return only).
wpmWords Per MinuteSpeech recognition processing power
WPNWorldwide Port NameA unique 16-character identifier assigned to each port on a Fibre Channel card. Used in LUN mapping.
WQUXGAWide Quad Ultra eXtended Graphics Arraya display standard referring to a video adapter capable of a resolution of up to 3840 by 2400 pixels.
WRCWorld Radiocommunication ConferenceAn ITU conference held every two or three years, to review and amend the international radio regulations.
WREDWeighted Random Early DetectionCombines IP precedence and Random Early Detection capabilities to provide differentiated performance characteristics for different classes of service
WRSWind River SystemsThe company that developed the VxWorks real-time operating system. Since its acquisition of competitor Integrated Systems (developers of pSOS) in 2000, Wind River has been the dominant player in the RTOS marketplace. http://www.wrs.com
WRTWeighted Risk TrendA weighted risk score measured over time
WS-SecuirtyWeb Services SecurityOASIS Standard specifies how SOAP messages can have their integrity and confidentiality ensured.
WSCWindows Security CenterA central interface in the Windows Vista system for user to manage security features and handle security problems. Windows Service Hardening – A new security feature in Windows Vista that protects services from being compromised by running them under more limited accounts.
WSDwhite space deviceFCC-certified wireless device that can be used without an exclusive broadcast license in the RF spectrum below 700 MHz
WSEWeb Services EnhancementsAdd-on to Microsoft Visual Studio .NET and the Microsoft .NET Framework providing developers the latest advanced Web services capabilities to keep pace with the evolving Web services protocol specifications
WSJWall Street JournalWSJ is an American English-language international daily newspaper. It is published in New York City by Dow Jones & Company. http://www.wsj.com/
WSFCWindows Server Failover ClusteringWindows Server Failover Clustering
WSP Web Standards Project  Wireless Session Protocol a collective project and effort of Web developers, tool developers, and end users whose goal is to stop the fragmentation of the web by persuading the browser makers that common standards are in everyone’s best interest.  provides the upper-level application layer of WAP with a consistent interface
WSSWindows Sharepoint ServicesWindows 2003 integrated portfolio of collaboration and communication services designed to connect people, information, processes, and systems both within and beyond the organizational firewall
WTGWily Transaction GeneratorCA APM’s synthetic transaction generator used to simulate transactions
WTLWindows Template LibraryLibrary for developing Windows applications and UI components. It extends ATL (Active Template Library) and provides a set of classes for controls, dialogs, frame windows, GDI objects, and more
WTLSWireless Transport Layer Securitythe security level for WAP applications. Based on TLS v1.0 (a security layer used in the Internet, equivalent to Secure Socket Layer 3.1), WTLS was developed to address the problematic issues surrounding mobile network devices
WTXWorkstation Technology eXtendedA size (max 16.75″x14″ — 425mm x 356mm, LxW) and form factor specification for motherboards. See also http://www.wtx.org
WUSWindows Update ServicesRelevant links: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/wsus/default.aspx
WVAWide Viewing AngleThe aspect ratios of each are 16:10 (widescreen).
WWANwireless wide-area networkwireless wide-area network
WWNWorld wide nameA unique number assigned by a recognized naming authority that identifies a connection or a set of connections to the network.
WWNNworldwide node nameA unique 64-bit identifier for a host containing a fibre-channel port.
WWPNworldwide port nameA unique 64-bit identifier associated with a fibre-channel adapter port.
WWWWorld Wide WebA facility developed for the internet, but also used on virtual private networks, which enables network servers to be set-up and registered. These servers contain Hypertext which when clicked on by a user will point them to other network files containing further, related information.
WYSIWYGwhat you see is what you getpronounced wiz-ee-wig, user interface that presents a screen image that closely matches the appearance of the printed document – like Microsoft’s FrontPage® web page editor and Adobe Dreamweaver.
WZCWireless Zero Configurationalso known as Wireless Auto Configuration, or WLAN AutoConfig is a wireless connection management utility included with Microsoft Windows XP and later operating systems
 warezGeneral term used to describe cracks, patches, keys, key generators or other methods that allow software applications to be used without paying a license fee, i.e. illegal pirate software.
 Warm BootRebooting the system by using a software command rather than turning the power off, then on. The system is reset but power is never interrupted
 wavelengthThe distance between the crests of a wave in a radio signal, measured as the speed of light divided by the frequency in Hz.
 Web 2.0A set of technologies and applications that enable efficient interaction among people, content, and data in support of collectively fostering new businesses, technology offerings, and social structures.
 Web analyticsThe use of a range of quantitative analyses to understand Web site performance and visitor experience. These analyses include usage levels and patterns on an individual and aggregate level.
 webmasterthe person who has principal responsibility for maintaining a site on the WORLD WIDE WEB and updating some or all of the WEB PAGEs
 WebOSa mobile operating system developed by Palm for its Pre range of smartphones. With Palm’s acquisition by HP in 2010, WebOS is now being expanded to address other devices, notably tablets, but also printers.
 WebquestA webquest is an inquiry-based learning instructional strategy utilizing information on the internet to guide learners. For information on developing webquests and sample webquests, see  http://webquest.org/
 white bookThis is the fourth major extension to the audio CD standard. White Book is a very medium-specific format.
 white labelproduct or service is a product or service produced by one company (the producer) that other companies (the marketers) rebrand to make it appear as if they made it. Common in Telco wholesale.
 white listList of approved or trusted people or vendors or items etc.
 WHOISThis is an Internet service that finds information about a domain name or IP address. HTTP://WWW.WHOIS.NET
 widgetAn HTML-based program that runs in the Dashboard layer of the system.
 WikipediaThe world’s largest online encyclopedia, which can be edited by anyone at all. www.wikipedia.org
 wikisA wiki is a simple collaborative system for creating and maintaining hyperlinked collections of Web pages. A wiki usually enables users to add or change pages “in context” without having to worry about where and how the content is physically stored.
 WildListThe WildList has been used as a ‘reference standard’ by many antivirus testing organizations that require 100% detection of acknowledged ‘in the wild’ viruses for tested products to attain various, ‘desirable’ certification levels.
 wireless power (supply)facilitates the charging or direct powering of electrical and electronic equipment using inductive or radio frequency (RF) energy transfer.
 wolfpackThe codename for Microsoft’s clustering solution. Wolfpack was released in September, 1997 as part of Windows NT 4.0, enterprise Edition. Its official name is MSCS.
 wrapsAn online distribution platform for financial advisors.
 write lockThe process of controlling a field so that the ability to change information held within it is maintained. In almost all computer languages, a type of table is used.
 Write-protectedA write-protected file has been set so that it cannot be altered or deleted without first removing the write protection. Also called read-only.

X – List of terms starting with the letter “X”

X3DExtensible 3D Graphicsan XML file that is used to hold three-dimensional graphical data.
x868086 processorThese include the 286, 386, 486, and 586 processors. As you can see, the “x” in x86 stands for a range of possible numbers. Technically, x86 is short for 80×86 since the full names of the processors are actually 80286, 80386, 80486, and 80586. The “80” is typically truncated to avoid redundancy.
XaaSanything as a serviceanything as a service
XACMLExtensible Access Control Markup Languageopen standard XML-based language designed to express security policies and access rights to information for Web services, DRM, and enterprise security applications.
XAFeXpressApplication Frameworka modern and powerful application framework allowing simultaneous ASP.NET and WinForms development. product of www.devexpress.com
XAMPPCross-platform/Apache/MySQL/PHP/PerlAn application stack which includes MySQL, Apache, PHP, and Perl.
XBLXML Binding Languagedocument used to associate executable content with an XML tag. It is itself an XML file, and is used most frequently (although not exclusively) in conjunction with XUL.
XBMCXBox Media CenterMedia player for the original Xbox game-console. XBMC can play music and videos, display images and launch Xbox games from the Xbox’s DVD drive, its internal hard drive, a local network, USB flash drive, and the internet
XBRLExtensible Business Reporting Languagea language for business financial data using XML-style tags. For more information, see www.xbrl.org.
XCPeXtended Copy ProtectionRootkit-based copy protection scheme
XDCCXabi DCC or eXtended DCCa script written in 1994 for ircII[1] by Xabi. This script extends the ircII DCC command.
XDOextended data objectIn an application program, a generic representation of a stored complex multimedia object that is used to move that object in to, and out of, storage. XDOs are most often contained within DDOs.
XDEeXtended Development ExperienceAs in IBM Rational Software’s XDE product
XDReXternal Data RepresentationStandard for machine-independent data structures developed by Sun Microsystems.
XDMX Display ManagerA program supplied with the OpenWindows interface that manages X displays
xDSLx digital subscriber lineGeneric term for a variety of digital subscriber line techniques that allow wide and narrowband signals to be sent down normal telephone wires.
XEExpress EditionOracle Database XE is an entry-level, small-footprint database based on the Oracle Database
XFDLExtensible Forms Description LanguageAn open protocol for creating, filling in, and reading complex business forms and legal contracts on the Internet and intranets. XFDL, based on XML, was developed because HTML is not suitable for representing auditable business forms.
XFNXHTML Friends NetworkA simple way to represent human relationships using hyperlinks. XFN enables web authors to indicate their relationship(s) to the people in their blogrolls simply by adding a ‘rel’ attribute to their ‘a href’ tags.
xfrtransferAn abbreviation used in data communications.
XGAExtended Graphics ArrayA high-resolution video display mode that provides screen pixel resolution of 1,024 by 768 in 256 colors, or 640 by 480 in high (16-bit) color.
XHRXmlHttpRequestAPI that can be used by JavaScript, JScript, VBScript and other web browser scripting languages to transfer and manipulate XML data to and from a web server
XHTMLExtensible Hypertext Markup LanguageXHTML is a spinoff of the HTML used for creating Web pages. It is based on the HTML 4.0 syntax, but has been modified to follow the guidelines of XML, the Extensible Markup Language. Therefore, XHTML 1.0 is sometimes referred to as HTML 5.0.
XID exchange identification  exchange station ID Request and response packets exchanged prior to a session between a router and a Token Ring host. If the parameters of the serial device contained in the XID packet do not match the configuration of the host, the session is dropped.  In communications, a data link command or response for recognizing the primary station and a secondary station.
XILX Imaging LibraryThe XIL is a platform programming interface for imaging and video support
XLFExtensible Log FormatA log format based on XML, designed to be extensible and universal.
XLLExtensible Linking Languagesecond part of the W3C’s XML specification concerning hyperlinks. An XML extension used to insert links that can point directly to a specific object (image, title, word, etc.) into a page.
XLSeXceL SpreadsheetMicrosoft Excel File name extension
XMCLExtensible Media Commerce Languagean XML-based language designed to support the business of delivering digital content (music, etc.) over the Internet. For more information, see www.xmcl.org.
XMIXML Metadata Interchangea proposed use of the XML that is intended to provide a standard way for programmers and other users to exchange information about metadata
XMLExtensible Markup Languagedefine documents with a standard format that can be read by any XML-compatible application. The language can be used with HTML pages, but XML itself is not a markup language. Instead, it is a “metalanguage” that can be used to create markup languages for specific applications.
XMLCeXtensible Markup Language CompilerConverts a HTML or XML document to a Java class
XMLRPCXML Remote Procedure Callprotocol for clientserver communication that sends and receives information “on top of” HTTP. The data sent and received is in a particular XML format specifically designed for use with XMLRPC.
XMPeXtensible Metadata PlatformProvides Adobe applications and workflow partners with a common XML framework that standardizes the creation, processing, and interchange of document metadata across publishing workflows
XMPPeXtensible Messaging and Presence ProtocolIETF’s formalization of the core protocols created by the Jabber community in 1999. See also  http://www.xmpp.org/
XMS Extended Memory Specification  Xirrus Management System a procedure used to access “high” memory in DOS.  provides centralized configuration and RF management, security control and policies (IDS/IPS), performance monitoring, and reporting for hundreds of Arrays across a Layer 3 network.
xmttransmitthe method of sending data to an alternate computer or device.
XNIXerces Native InterfaceFramework for communicating a “streaming” document information set and constructing generic parser configurations.
XNRLXml Namespace Related-resource LanguageHTML-based markup language designed to contain a human-readable description of an XML namespace as well as pointers to multiple resources related to that namespace
XNSXerox Network SystemsThe suite of internet protocols developed by the Xerox Corporation; generally used by larger systems using IBM operating systems.
XOcrystal oscillatorAn oscillator in which the frequency is controlled by a piezoelectric crystal.
XOFFTransmitter offAn abbreviation for the ASCII transmission-control character
XoIPAnything Over IPRefers to any form of data transmitted over a TCP/IP network. XoIP is used when describing Voice/SIP Over Cable, Voice/SIP over Ethernet, Voice/SIP over Wireless, Streaming Video Over IP, etc, or anything over IP.
XONTransmitter onAn abbreviation for the ASCII transmission-control character meaning “Transmitter on.”
XOPXml-binary Optimized PackagingA mean of more efficiently serializing XML Infosets that have certain types of content
XORexclusive-OR gatea logic gate whose output is 1 when one but not both of its inputs is 1
XP eXPerience  Extreme Programming version 5.1 of Microsoft Windows  a software engineering methodology which is intended to improve software quality and responsiveness to changing customer requirements.
XPathXML Path LanguageA language used to create addresses mapping the various parts of XML document. XPath gets its name from its use of a path notation (as used in Internet URLs) for navigating through the hierarchical structure of an XML document.
XPFECross Platform Front EndA suite of technologies used to create applications that will work and look the same on different computer operating systems. A widely used XPFE application is the Mozilla web browser and its derivities, such as the Netscape web browser in version 7 and later.
xPGKxPEERience gatekeeper/proxyA commonly used VoIP solution in Russia. RGC, owner and operator of RHINOTEL, bought xPGK to bring together various H.323 based gateways by different manufacturers.
XPLCarrier Private LineA telephony slang abbreviation
XPLINKExtra Performance LinkageA type of call linkage that can improve performance in an environment of frequent calls between small functions.
XPSXml Paper SpecificationPaginated representation of electronic paper described in an XML-based format
XQLXML Query Languagea way to locate and filter the elements (data fields) and text in XML document. XML files are used to transmit collections of data between computers on the Web.
XRCextended remote copy In z/OS and S/390 environments, a hardware- and software-based, remote-copy, service option that provides an asynchronous volume copy across storage subsystems for disaster recovery, device migration, and workload migration.  A function of a storage server that assists a control program to maintain a consistent copy of a LVOL on another storage facility.
XREXul Runtime EngineNow renamed in XULRunner, is a Mozilla runtime package that can be used to bootstrap XUL+XPCOM applications that are as rich as Firefox and Thunderbird.
XrMLExtensible Rights Markup Languagean XML-based language for specifying rights and conditions associated with digital content or services. For more information, see www.xrml.org.
XRSTextended restart An IMS/ESA system service call that can request that a program restarts normally or from a specific checkpoint ID, a time/date stamp, or (BMPs only) the last checkpoint issued.  A restart, initiated by a DL/I call, that reestablishes database positioning and user-specified areas.
XSDXml Schema DefinitionXML-based grammar for describing the structure of XML documents. A schema-aware validating parser can validate an XML document against an XSD schema and report any discrepancies
XSLextensible Stylesheet Languagea set of language technologies for defining XML document transformation and presentation
XSLTeXtensible Style Language Transformationthe language used in XSL style sheets to “interpret” XML coding and display it in a language the viewer will understand.
XSSCross-Site Scriptinga type of computer security vulnerability typically found in web applications which enable malicious attackers to inject client-side script into web pages viewed by other users
XT crosstalk  Extended Technology Undesired coupling of a signal from one circuit, part of a circuit, or channel, to another.  The first IBM PC to have a hard disk. It came out in 1983. It had an Intel 8088 microprocessor, 128KB of RAM, and a 10MB hard drive.
XTIUNIX Transport Layer InterfaceLayer 4 transport layer, standardized under UNIX
XTMExtensible Threat Managementnext generation of UTM, integrated network security appliances.
XTPExtreme transaction processingan application style aimed at supporting design, development, deployment, management and maintenance of distributed transaction processing (TP) applications, characterized by exceptionally demanding performance, scalability, availability, security, manageability and dependability requirements.
XTPPextreme transaction processing platformWell-established architectures and technologies are evolving and converging with XTP-specific technologies
XTR Efficient Compact Subgroup Trace Representation  Extreme Reality   A crypto system that is a particularly efficient and compact implementation of the classical Diffie-Hellman scheme. See http://www.ecstr.com   http://www.xtr3d.com/
XULeXtensible User-interface Languagepronounced “zool”, A markup language similar to HTML and based on XML. XUL used to define what the user interface will look like for a particular piece of software. XUL is used to define what buttons, scrollbars, text boxes, and other user-interface items will appear, but it is not used to define how those item will look (e.g. what color they are).
xVMintersection (x) of virtualization and managementused by Sun Microsystems for its virtualization and management software. Also called Sun xVM, it is a Solaris-based hypervisor that enables servers to run multiple operating systems simultaneously on a single computer, addressing both desktop and server virtualization.
XVTExtensible Virtual ToolkitAn applications development toolkit from XVT Software, Inc., which makes it possible to develop user interfaces for multiple platforms.
XWBeXtend WorkBenchJava IDE
XWSSXml and WebServices SecurityProvides message-level security that enables a JAX-WS or SAAJ application’s request and response actions to be secured at the level of service, port, or operation
 X-bandbandwith between 7 GHz to 8 GHz, which usually is used by military satellites.
 X.25A type of packet switched network used extensively by PNOs for public services and popular for transaction based private networks.
 X InternetA set of technologies that connect firms’ information systems to physical assets, products, and devices.
 X-WindowsThe software system written for managing windows under Unix. A graphics architecture, application programming interface and prototype implementation developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, X-Windows defines a client/server relationship between the application program and the workstation. It is not, however, a complete graphical user interface, but rather the basis on which one can be built.
 x64A processor architecture based on the 32-bit IA-32 (x86) architecture, with extensions for the execution of 64-bit software. AMD produced the first instances of x64-based processors, the AMD64 processors—also referred to with the term x86-64.
 xcopya command in Windows and other operating systems for copying groups of files. It works just like copy except that as many files as possible are read into memory before any are written to disk. This is usually faster than using copy.
 XenA virtualization platform which began as a research project at the University of Cambridge and was released as open source software in 2003. Xen utilizes paravirtualization to hook calls to the hardware node’s resources
 Xeona high-speed Pentium-class microprocessor introduced by Intel in 2002 as a successor to the Pentium 4. It features a pipelined architecture with clock speeds of 1.8 GHz and higher.
 XINGXING (named openBC/Open Business Club until 17 November 2006) is a social software platform for enabling a small-world network for professionals. http://www.xing.com/
 XPWindows XP. Refers to the Windows XP operating system from Microsoft. www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/default.mspx – Windows XP Home Page
 XperiaSony Xperia is a family of Sony smartphones and tablets. The line of phones has been manufactured since 2008, while the first tablet released under the brand was launched in 2012. The name Xperia is derived from the word “experience”, and was first used in the Xperia X1 tagline, “I (Sony Ericsson) Xperia the best”.

Y – List of terms starting with the letter “Y”

Y2KYear 2000This term is more often used to refer to the “Millenium Bug.” This bug is a little creature that lives inside older computers. When the year 2000 rolls around, the little bug will self-destruct, blowing up the computer it was residing in. The chain of explosions across the world will be catastrophic, causing global panamonia and LA riots.
yaccyet another compiler compilerYacc is the standard parser generator for the Unix operating system. An open source program, yacc generates code for the parser in the C programming language. The acronym is usually rendered in lowercase but is occasionally seen as YACC or Yacc. The original version of yacc was written by Stephen Johnson at AT&T.
YA-Yet AnotherA humorous allusion often used in titles to acknowledge that the topic is not original, though the content is.
YAHUYet Another Header UtilityUtilities for peeking into executables headers
YASTYet Another Setup Toolan RPM-based operating system setup and configuration tool that is featured in the openSUSE Linux distribution, as well as Novell’s derived commercial distributions.
YBYottabyteA yottabyte is 2 to the 80th power, or 1,208,925,819,614,629,174,706,176 bytes. 1024 zetabytes
YESYahoo! Enterprise SolutionsYahoo! Enterprise Solutions
YiBYobibyteA yobibyte is a unit of data storage that equals 2 to the 80th power, or 1,208,925,819,614,629,174,706,176 bytes. While a yottabyte can be estimated as 10^24 or 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 bytes, a yobibyte is exactly 1,208,925,819,614,629,174,706,176 bytes. This is to avoid the ambiguity associated with the size of yottabytes.
YIMYahoo! Instant MessengerYahoo! Instant Messenger
YKYBHTLWyou know you’ve been hacking too long whenIn this expression, hacking means “programming,” not “attempting computer crime.”
YMMVour mileage may varyA warning that not everything described in a manual will work exactly the way it promised to.
YPYellow Pagesthe original name for the NIS system before British Telecom asserted their trademark.
YPNYahoo Publishers Networkan advertising program run by Yahoo. Web site owners can enroll in this program to enable text and image advertisements on their sites. These ads are administered by Yahoo and generate revenue on a per-click basis.
YUBluminance (Y) chroma (UV)The method of color encoding for transmitting color video images while maintaining compatibility with black-and-white video. Uses less bandwidth than the three separate video signals in an RGB video transmission. known before as YCrCb
YYYY-MM-DDYear Year Year Year – Month Month – Day DayThe ISO standard formula for writing dates, which avoids the Century Date Change (Y2K) problem.
 Yellow BookPublished by Philips and Sony, the ‘Yellow Book’ used the Red Book as its basis for the physical specifications of sectors in a CD-ROM–designed for computer data.
 youngest versionthe historical version of a data set that is chronologically closest to the base version in a generation group.
 youtubera person who produces video content for the video sharing site Youtube.
 YukonYukon is the code name used for the beta version of Microsoft’s SQL Server 2005. SQL Server 2005 is said to provide enhanced flexibility, scalability, reliability, and security to database applications, and to make them easier to create and deploy, thus reducing the complexity and tedium involved in database management.

Z – List of terms starting with the letter “Z”

ZAPPZero Assignment Parallel ProcessorA virtual tree machine architecture in which a process tree is dynamically mapped onto a fixed, strongly connected network of processors communicating by message passing.
ZAWZero Administration WindowA Microsoft initiative launched in 1997 to lower the TCO associated with the Windows platform by reducing costs associated with administration. Many of components introduced under the ZAW umbrella were incorporated as regular functionality within Windows 2000.
ZBZettabyteUnit of storage. Often abbreviated to ZB. 1 ZB = 2 to the seventieth power bytes = 1,180,591,620,717,411,303,424 bytes = 1024 exabytes . 1024 zettabytes = 1 yottabyte.
ZBRZero Bug ReleasePoint in the software development at which all features are correctly implemented and have no bugs logged against them
ZBR / ZCAVZoned-bit recording / Zone Constant Angular VelocityZBR is a method of physically optimizing the utilization of a hard drive by placing more sectors in the outer tracks than in the inner tracks. This technique is also known as zone-bit recording, zone recording, zone-density recording, or multiple-zone recording.
ZBTSIZero Byte Time Slot InterchangeA technique used with the T carrier Extended Superframe Format (ESF) in which an area in the ESF frame carries information about the location of all-zero bytes, eight consecutive zeros, within the data stream.
ZCSzero code suppressionA coding method used with alternate mark inversion to prevent sending eight successive zeros. If eight successive zeros occur, the second-least significant bit is changed from a 0 to a 1. AMI with ZCS does not support clear channel operation.
ZCTzero count tableused in deferred reference counting to record objects whose reference counts have dropped to zero but which have not been processed to see if they can be reclaimed.
ZDBopZiff-Davis Benchmark OperationThe division of Ziff-Davis, Inc. that develops the benchmark programs used by Ziff-Davis publications, including BatteryMark, BrowserComp, MacBench, NetBench, ServerBench, WebBench, WinBench, and Winstone.
ZDLZero Delay LockoutTechnology designed to prevent beaconing stations from entering into a Token Ring by locking out faulty stations.
ZDN / ZDNetZiff Davis NetworkLargest computer publication company network: www.zdnet.com
ZDOZigBee Device Objecta protocol in the ZigBee protocol stack, is responsible for overall device management, and security keys and policies. The ZDO is like a special application object that is resident on all ZigBee nodes.
Zeroconfzero configuration (IP networking)a method of networking devices via an Ethernet cable without requiring configuration and administration.
ZFS Zettabyte File System  zSeries File System A distributed file system from Sun that was added to OpenSolaris in 2005 and Solaris 10 in 2006.  A distributed file system from IBM for its zSeries mainframes. In zFS, storage management is separated from file management.
ZIFZero Insertion ForceZIF is a type of CPU socket on a computer motherboard that allows for the simple replacement or upgrade of the processor. Processors that use a ZIF socket can easily be removed by pulling a small release lever next to the processor and lifting it out. The replacement processor is then placed in the socket and secured by pushing the lever in the opposite direction
ZILZork Implementation LanguageLanguage used by Infocom’s Interactive Fiction adventure games. Interpreted by the zmachine, for Unix and Amiga.
zineelectronic magazinean earlier usage in print media that derived from magazine and described “small press” or personally distributed magazines or newsletters.
ZINKZero INKAn inkless printing technology from ZINK Imaging, LLC., Waltham, MA www.zink.com) that was introduced in early 2007. The ZINK paper contains layers of dye crystals that turn color when activated by heat.
ZIPZone Information ProtocolAppleTalk session layer protocol that maps network numbers to zone names. ZIP is used by NBP to determine which networks contain nodes that belong to a zone.
ZLEzero-latency enterpriseA strategy that aims for instantaneous awareness and appropriate responses to events across an entire virtual enterprise. As soon as new information is captured by any application, it is made available to all other interested parties. The ZLE concept is closely related to that of the RTE, a strategy to progressively remove delays in the execution of an enterprise’s critical business processes.
ZMAZone Multicast AddressA data-link-dependent multicast address at which a node receives the NBP broadcasts directed to its zone.
ZNAZero Network Administrationall registration, profiles, policy kept in 1 place
ZOPEZ Object Publishing Environmentfree, open source Web application platform used for building high-performance, dynamic Web sites. HTTP://WWW.ZOPE.ORG
ZRTP(Zimmerman ) Real-Time Transport ProtocolVoIP encryption extension for the RTP. The “Z” in “ZRTP” is the first letter of the surname of Phil Zimmermann, an engineer best known for inventing PGP. ZRTP is a part of a SDK for an encryption program Zimmerman created called Zfone.
ZTEZhong Xing Telecommunication Equipmenta Chinese corporation that designs and manufactures telecommunications equipment and systems http://www.zte.com.cn
ZTLPZero Transmission Level PointIn telephony, a reference point for measuring the signal power gain and losses of telecommunications circuit at which a zero dBm signal level is applied and used for system design and testing.
zshZ shellA UNIX command interpreter.
ZV port / ZVPZoomed Video portZV port is a technology that supports the delivery of full-screen motion video and multimedia to notebook computers. The ZV port allows special software and a version of the PC Card called a ZV Port Card to provide a separate dedicated, point-to-point bus or path from continuously arriving video signals directly to the display controller. ZV ports are provided in IBM, Toshiba, and other manufacturers’ notebook computers.
 zappingConsidered to be the lowest form of software programming known to mankind, it involves altering the assembly code in hex format after it has been output from a complier or assembler. Typically done when there is a compiler bug, the proper data is not being generated, or the original source code was lost.
 zero daya software vulnerability that has been exploited by malicious hackers on or before the day the software creators become aware of the problem
 Zero Wait StateRefers to a system that allows the processor to work at full clock speed regardless of the clock speed of RAM.
 ZigBee (alliance / modules) A vendor initiative started by Philips Semiconductor, Honeywell and Invensys Metering Systems and now including more than 20 companies. It is responsible for developing applications for technology based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard  modules are essentially transceiver modules that add wireless networking capabilities to electronic devices. They are used in remote monitoring machine-to-machine communications, automation systems in home and offices, fridges, wireless sensor networks along with other applications.
 -zillaan English slang suffix, a back-formation derived from the English name of the Japanese movie monster Godzilla. It is popular for the names of software and websites. This trend has been observed since the popularization of the Mozilla Project
 zineSmall, often free magazine, usually produced by hobbyists and amateur journalists.
 zip (file) An open standard for compression and decompression used widely for PC download archives.  Windows users will see this term a lot when looking for files on the Internet. A zip file (.zip) is a “zipped” or compressed file. “Zipping” a file involves compressing one or more items into a smaller archive. www.winzip.com
 zip drivea large capacity floppy disc drive developed by IOMEGA Corporation. Used for backing up important data.
 zombie a computer that a remote attacker has accessed and set up to forward transmissions (including spam and viruses) to other computers on the Internet. also known as a zombie army  an abandoned, unkept or sadly out-of-date Web site.  A user that surfs the web hours on end and never seems to sleep or tire.
 zoneA logical group of network devices.
 zSeriesIBM’s 64-bit mainframe product line, which includes its z800, z900 and z990 mainframe servers. The zSeries products are a re-branding of, and major upgrade to, IBM’s S/390-class mainframe computers.
 zuneThe Zune is a portable digital media player from Microsoft . The first version, released in November of 2006, is about the size of a deck of playing cards and weighs 5.6 ounces.